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The Toga-sutras of Patanjali as illustrated by the Com- 
ment entitled The Jewel's Lustre or Maniprabha? — 
Translated by James Haughton Woods, Professor of 
Philosophy in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Book First: Concentration. 

I praise Him unalloyed by hindrance or any such thing, 
Hari, the Primal Man, — the Enjoyer of the primary-substance, 
Sita, — Him who is the Lord of Yoga and the Giver of Yoga. 
Bowing down devoutly to Patanjali the Author of the Sutras, 
and to the Silent Sage Vyasa, the Author of the Comment, 
I shall set forth an Exposition upon the Yoga called the 
Jewel's Lustre and, so far as my mind permits, worthy to be 

In this [sutra], as every one knows, the Exalted Patanjali, 
to assist the activity of the learned, tells what is to be taught 
by the book. 

1 The title of the book is an allusion to the passage in the Comment 
on Yoga-sutra i. 36 (p. 82 2 , Calc. ed.). Here the mind becomes stable in 
intent contemplation and unconcerned with its transitory and particular 
conditions. It is illumined by insight into its universal qualities. "It 
becomes like a ray of the sun or the moon or of a planet or a gem. 
Having attained to a feeling of its self, it becomes waveless like the Great 
Sea, calmed, endless, with a sense of nothing but itself." The pervasive 
sense of personality is further described in this book at i. 36 (p. 193 of 
the Benares text) and again at iii. 32 (p. 63 s ). 

The date of the book is not far from 1592 A. D. For in the colophon 
of the Maniprabha we read that the author Ramanahda-sarasvati was the 
disciple of Govinananda-sarasvatl. Ramananda-sarasvatl dedicated another 
of his works the Bhasya-ratnaprabha to the same master (Hall : Contribu- 
tion towards an Index to the Bibliography of the Philosophical Systems, 
p. 89 — 90). Another disciple of Govinananda named Narayana-sarasvatI 
wrote a book in the year 4693 of the Kali-yuga, corresponding to 1592 A. D. 
Accordingly the date of Ramananda, author of the Maniprabha, would 
not be far from that same year. 

1 JAOS 34. 

2 James Haughton Woods, 

1. Now the exposition of yoga [is to be made]. 
The word <Now> indicates a beginning; that is, the 
authoritative book on yoga is begun. — Although an authori- 
tative book was made by Hiranyagarbha, still since that was 
deemed too extended, an authoritative work conforming to that 
[book] is begun. This he makes clear by the word < exposi- 
tion). — 1. In this sutra the word <yoga> stands for what is to 
be taught in the authoritative book. — 2. It is evident that any 
one who wishes to understand is competent [to begin the 
book]. — 3. Whereas the outcome of yoga is to be Isolation. — 
4. The association together of these [three] as required. These 
may be regarded as the four introductory-reasons (anubandha). — 
In this system yoga is said to be of two kinds, that cons- 
cious [of an object] and that not conseious [of an object]. 
This [yoga] moreover is a condition of the mind- stuff in so 
far as the fluctuations are properties of the mind-stuff. Accord- 
ingly the yoga which is the restriction of these [fluctuations] 
is also a condition of that [mind-stuff]. Of this mind-stuff there 
are five stages, the restless, the infatuated, the distracted, the 
single-in-intent, and the restricted. Restless [mind-stuff] is ex- 
cessively changeable by the force of rajas [and is the mind-stuff] 
of daityas. Infatuated [mind-stuff] contains sleep and similar 
states [and is the mind-stuff] of raksasas. Distracted [mind- 
stuff] is distinguished from restless and other [mind-stuffs and 
is the mind-stuff] of gods and similar beings. Its distinguish- 
ing characteristic is that its excessively changeable mind-stuff 
is occasionally steady. Of these [three], in the case of the 
restless and infatuated [mind-stuffs] there is not even a trace 
of yoga. Whereas in case of the distracted miud-stuff, the 
occasional yoga, which is consumed by the fire of increasing 
distraction and becomes unpoised and fruitless, cannot properly 
be called yoga. But in the mind-stuff focussed-in-intent, with 
a predominance of sattva and stable in respect of one object, 
the restriction of the fluctuations of rajas and tamas, which 
is distinguished by its sattva, becomes [yoga] conscions [of an 
object]. In as much as it is indirectly experienced by either 
verbal- communication or inference, it becomes, when its in- 
tended-object is known, directly-experienced; as a result of the 
direct-experience undifferentiated-consciousness and the other 
hindrances dwindle away; after this there is a burning of both 
merit and evil; as the result of this there is a change into the 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabhd. 3 

yoga not concious [of an object], which is the restriction even 
of its fluctuations of sattva in the restricted mind-stuff which 
is subliminal-impressions only and nothing more. Accordingly 
the Author of the Comment says «But that [yoga] which, 
when the mind is single-in-intent, illumines a distinct and real 
object, and causes the hindrances to dwindle, slackens the 
bonds of karma, and sets before it as a goal the restriction 
[of all fluctuations] is called that in which there is conscious- 
ness of an object (samprajnata)». 

The characteristic-mark common to the two kinds of yoga 
he now describes. 
2. Yoga, is the restriction of the fluctuations of the mind-stuff. 

In other words <yoga> is the restriction of the rajas and 
tamas fluctuations of the mind-stuff. There is therefore no 
defect in the extension-of-the-term to [yoga] conscious [of an 
object] also, which has its existence in its fluctuation of sattva. 
The objecters might ask 'Why does a mind-stuff which is a unit 
have the distracted stage and various other stages?' In reply 
we say it is because the mind-stuff is, in essence, of three 
aspects (guna). For the mind-stuff, because it is predisposed 
to thinking and pleasure and the like, and because it has 
activity and other properties, and because it undergoes 
apathy and poverty and other conditions, has the aspects of 
sattva and rajas and tamas. This being so, when rajas and 
tamas are both a little less than sattva, but reciprocally equal 
to each other, then because of the sattva [the mind-stuff] in- 
clines to contemplation; and afterwards, when this [sattva] is 
shut off by tamas, under the influence of the rajas, it becomes 
lustful of lordly-power and devoted to objects of sense [and so 
becomes again] distracted. But when tamas predominates, the 
mind-stuff is infatuated, and then undergoes what is the opposite 
of happiness and of right-living and of thinking and of passion- 
lessness and of power. And the opposite of thinking in this case 
is error and sleep. But when rajas predominates, the mind-stuff 
is restless. These [last] two, the restless and the infatuated, are 
common to all [states of the mind-stuff]. But it is the restless 
[mind-stuffwhich] especially appertains to those who are notyogins. 
Now there are four [classes of] yogins, the Prathamakalpikas and 
the Madhubhumikas and the Prajnajyotis and the Atikranta- 
bhavaniyas. But later the characteristic-mark of these will 

4 James Haughton Woods, 

be told. If however sattva predominates and [the mind-stuff] 
is free from tamas and contains some rajas, [the mind-stuff] 
is single -in -intent. And the mind-stuff of the two middle 
[classes of] yogins who attain to yoga conscious of an object 
becomes full of right-living and thinking and passionlessness 
and power. But now when the stain of rajas and tamas is 
washed away and the sattva is pure, the mind-stuff accomplishes 
the discriminative discernment and accomplishes the so-called 
Rain-Cloud of [knowable] Things, the contemplation of the Self 
and nothing more. This is designated by contemplators the 
highest elevation. «The Energy of Thought is immutable and 
does not unite [with objects] and objects are only shown to it; 
it is undefiled and unending.* Since this is determined and 
because (sat) the mind-stuff frees itself from attachment even 
to the discriminative discernment, which belongs with its sattva 
aspect, [the mind-stuff] restricts this [discriminative discern- 
ment] and finally becomes subliminal-impressious and nothing 
more. This is the mind-stuff of the fourth [class of] yogins. 
And this is the concentration not concious [of an object]. 
Because [as yet] nothing very definite has been made known 
with regard to this [concentration], nothing more need now be 
said. The quotation beginning «The Energy of Thought" and 
ending with the word «unending» is from the Comment. In 
this quotation the words «does not unite with objects* refers 
to the Self when he has entered the thinking-substance 1 or 
some other [form of the primary-substance] and does not go 
elsewhere, just as a serpent when he has entered his hole 
[remains there]. The words «objects are only shown to it» 
refer to that [Energy of Thought] which has its objects shown 
to it by the thinking-substance. The word «undefiled» means 
without pleasure or pain or infatuation. 

If now the Self, whose nature is that the fluctuations of 
thinking-substance [are shown to him], restricts [these] fluctua- 
tions, how can he become self-stable (sthiti)? In reply to this 
he says 

1 The comparison of the mind to a cave in which the Self is concealed 
is common. See for example the Comment on Yoga-sutra iv. 22: "That 
cave in which the eternal Brahman lies concealed is not an under-world 
nor mountain- chasm nor dismal pit nor caverns of the sea, but in some 
fluctuation of the thinking-substance when not distinguished from himself." 
The similarity to Plato's figure of the Cave, Republic Book VII, is obvious. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 5 

3. Then the Knower [that is, the Self] abides in himself. 

When all the fluctuations, peaceful and cruel and infatuated, 
of the mind-stuff are restricted, then the Knower, whose essence 
is consciousness, is established in his own natural form. Just 
so the crystal [gem] has [its own natural color] when the 
flower [next it] is removed. The point is that the Self's own 
nature is intelligence and nothing more and is not fluctuations. 

The doubt is raised whether then in the emergent state, the 
Self lapses from his own nature. In reply he says 

4. At other times it takes the same form as the fluctuations 

[of mind-stuff]. 
The fluctuations, whether in the tranquil or other states, 
which are at other times than the restriction, [that is] during 
the emergence. It takes the same form as these. As a result 
of the Self's failure to discriminate [himself] from his thinking- 
substance which contains fluctuations, he makes the error of 
identifying himself with the fluctuations so that he thinks 'I am 
tranquil or I am pained or I am infatuated'. Hence he does 
not lapse from his own nature. For when one falls into the 
error of regarding the crystal [gem] as red, the crystal does 
not itself lapse from its own nature which is white. This is 
the point. Thus in restriction there is release; in emergence 
there is bondage. This is the import of the two sutras. 

He new tells the number of the fluctuations which are to 
be destroyed. 

5. The fluctuations are of five kinds hindered or unhindered. 

In the Kajavarttika it is said "The Author of the Sutras 
desirous of explaining the restrictions of the fluctuations of 
mind-stuff— after explaining by a pair of sutras that mind-stuff 
of which during restriction there is release and during emer- 
gense there is bondage, and after explaining the fluctuations 
by the words beginning [i. 5] with «The fluctuations).— explains 
restriction by the rest of the Book [First] beginning [i. 12] 
with "By means of practice and passionlessness." The termina- 
tion tayap[—tayyah] has the meaning of having parts. The 
word fluctuation refers to fluctuations in general. Because 
fluctuations in general are many, inasmuch as there are different 

6 James Haugliton Woods, 

mind-stuffs belonging to Chaitra or Maitra on to others, the 
word < fluctuations > is used in the plural. In other words, 
fluctuation in general have five particular cases, sources-of- 
valid-ideas and the rest, which are described in the next sutra. 
Those are of fine kinds (pancatayyah), the parts of which are 
five. He describes the distinction between them for the pur- 
pose of rejecting some and accepting others by saying <hindered 
or unhindered>. The causes of the hindrances, passion and 
aversion for example, are <hindered> and result in bondage. 
For every creature after having done a deed with passion, it 
may be, for intended-objects known by the source-of-a-valid-idea 
or by some other [fluctuation] is bound by pleasure or in some 
other way. The <unhindered> are destructive of the hindran- 
ces and result in release. These latter, occupied with the 
difference between sattva and the Self and arising under the 
influence of practice and passionlessness in the midst of the 
stream of hindered fluctuations, restrict the stream of hindered 
fluctuations by restriction of the hindered subliminal-impres- 
sions through the agency of self-effected unhindered subliminal 
impressions which have grown strong by repeated practice; and 
[in turn] they themselves are restricted by higher passionless- 
ness. As a result of this the mind-stuff which is nothing but 
subliminal-impressions dissolves and release comes to pass. 
This is the point. 

He specifies the fine fluctuations. 

6. Sources-of-valid-ideas, misconceptions, predicate-relations, 
sleep, and memory. 

Other than these there is no fluctuation. This is the result 
of the sutra of announcement. 

Of these [five] he analyzes the fluctuation of the source-of- 

7. The sources-of-valid-ideas are perception and inference and 

The point is that there are three sources-of-valid-ideas. In 
this case the common characteristic-mark is the causation of 
valid-ideas. A valid-idea, moreover, is an illumination by the 
Self which pervades an unknown object and which is reflected 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 7 

in a fluctuation. The instrument for this is a fluctuation. 
This being so, by means of a relation with a sense-organ, 
the mind-stuff, when there is a relation to any such thing 
as a water-jar, undergoes a fluctuation, which is chiefly con- 
cerned with the specification of a particular phenomenalized 
form in an intended-object which is essentially both general 
and particular, — this is source-of-valid-ideas from perception. 
That reflection of the conscious self upon the fluctuation which 
has the form of the conscious object acquires also, by means 
of the fluctuation, the form of the intended-object. Thus when 
an object not immediately presented is known in its general 
form by concentration, there exists the fluctuation of the par- 
ticular, and that is knowable [by yogins] as having a percep- 
tive validity. In inference and verbal testimony, requiring as 
they do, the the-major-premiss (vyapti) and the grasping of a 
connected-meaning (samgati), there is, as regards the generic 
idea of fieriness, for example, only the presentation of the 
generic idea by the grasping of this [the major premiss and 
the connected-meaning]. Of these two, when one has grasped 
the major-premiss, inference is the fluctuation which speci- 
fies in general the characteristic-property (avachedaka) of the 
thing to he proved by the syllogistic-mark (lingo) which func- 
tions (vrtti) in the minor-term (paksa). Verbal-communication 
is a fluctuation of the [mind-stuff of the] hearer having for its 
province that intended-object, whether seen or inferred by a 
trustworthy person, which [fluctuation] is produced from the 
words used by that [trustworthy person]. It will be declared 
that the Veda is composed by the trustworthy Icvara. 

Misconception is characterized. 

8. Misconception is an erroneous notion which does not remain 
in the proper form of that [in respects of ivhich the misconcep- 
tion is entertained]. 

This amounts to saying that it, has no basis (pratistha) upon 
its own object which has the form of this or that. This is 
the opposite of a contradiction; [it is an assertion]. The pre- 
dicate-relation is also the opposite of a contradiction and has 
no basis in the form of this or that. So the characterization 
in too wide. So remove this he uses the words < erroneous 
notion>. So that (tsna) in respect of its own object [miscon- 

8 James Houghton Woods. 

ception] is possessed of a contradiction, admitted by all, which 
does away with [all] the business of life which it might itself 
produce. And you cannot say that a similar contradiction 
applies to the predicate-relation. .For although certain pandits 
have an idea that there is contradiction in the predicate- 
relation, still the business-of-life goes on as before. Because 
doubt, moreover, is just about to be characterized, the charac- 
terization is not [after all] too wide. This is the point. It 
will be said that the five hindrances are cases (bheda) of this 
same misconception. 

The predicate-relation is characterized. 

9. The predicate-relation is [a notion] devoid of any correspond- 
ing perceptible object and follows upon knowledge conveyed by 


That fluctuation which is called a predicate-relation does 
necessarily arise after one hears assertions, it might be 
for example, about a man's horns. This predicate-relation 
having no real object is not the source-of-a-valid-idea. It is 
not a misconception because it necessarily arises even when 
[you are aware] that there is a contradiction and because it 
is the source of [ordinary] business-of-life. Thus for instance 
when it is said [by some philosophers] that "The true nature 
of the Self is intelligence (caitanya)", although it is certain 
that there is an identity, yet the predicate-relation is between 
the Self and intelligence as different. Non-existence apart 
from existence is nothing at all. Although you are certain of 
this, still the Self is defined as having non-existence of all 
attributes, and this is a predicate-relation between subject and 
predicate. Similarly when, for example, one speaks of Rahu's 
head, predicate-relations must be instanced. 

Sleep is characterized. 

10. Sleep is a fluctuation [of mind-stuff] supported by the cause 
(pratyaya, that is tamas,) of the [transcient] negation [of 

the waking and the dreaming fluctuations]. 

It proceeds to (pratyayate), [that is] goes to an effect. In 
this sense it is a cause (pratyaya) [that is] a reason. It is 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 9 

the reason why the waking and dreaming fluctuations cease. 
That fluctuation the support, [that is] object of which is [this] 
tamas is sleep. There is an express mention of the word 
<fluctuation,> although it is continued from [sutra i. 5], in 
order to exclude the theory that sleep is cessation of thinking. 
So then a man [just after] awakening has the memory which 
leads him to say 'I slept well'. This has for its object the 
tamas, which is auxiliary to the sattva of his thinking-substance, 
and leads us to postulate an experience of that [tamas]. The 
memory which leads [him] to say 'I have slept poorly' has 
tamas and rajas for its object, and leads us to postulate an 
experience of them. The memory which leads [him] to say 
'I have slept in deep stupor' has tamas only for its object and 
leads us to postulate an experience of that [tamas only]. And 
it is this experience, which is a property of the thinking-sub- 
stance, that is sleep. This [sleep] although it resembles the 
fluctuation which is single-in-intent, must yet be restricted 
by one who desires yoga, because it partakes of tamas. This 
is the point. 

11. Memory is not-adding surreptitiously to the perceived object. 

For the experience of a valid idea is the father of a memory; 
that which concerns this [experience] is [also] related to the 
memory; just as in ordinary life the wealth of the father be- 
longs to the son. But the memory is concerned with the 
original experience. The taking of this property of another is 
surreptitious adding, [that is] stealing. And so with regard to 
the perceived object this same not-adding surreptitiously is not 
grasping after more. In other words, memory would be the 
grasping of what was perceived and nothing more. Thus an 
experience is an illumination on the part of the Self which rests 
upon a fluctuation and which illumines itself. Accordingly 
memory, as a result of a subliminal-impression produced by 
this experience, is also concerned with the experience. An 
objector [who denies that memory is caused by experience] 
asks, 'Does not a man in dream remember the assumption of 
the form of an elephant such as he never experienced [in 
waking]?' The reply is, no, because this [memory] partakes 
of misconception [instead of experience]. 

10 James Haughton Woods, 

The method for restricting these fluctuations is described. 

12. The restriction of them is by practice and passionlessness. 

Every living-creature has by nature a fluctuation of mind- 
stuff which is a river moving on to the level of objects and 
which flows towards the sea of the round-of-existence. This 
being so, by passionlessness with regard to an object the 
flowing of this [river] is broken and by practice in the dis- 
crimination between sattva and the Self the opposite flowing 
of this river is brought to pass. For if [a man] were not to 
repeat [this discrimination between the sattva and the Self] 
then the mind-stuff, which is naturally deliquescent and dis- 
tracted, when once the distraction is broken by passionlessness, 
would fall into sleep. Therefore both practice and passion- 
lessness, because there is a distinction of use in the repression 
of the deliquescence and of the distraction, are required to 
act together for the restriction, which is the effect to be 

The nature of practice is described. 

13. Practice is the [repeated] exertion that [the mind-stuff] shall 

have permanence in its [natural] state. 

<Permanence> means a singleness-of-intent on the part of 
the mind-stuff which has no fluctuation of rajas or of tamas. 
<In its natural state> would mean in one of these two. 
<Practice> is the following up of the continued exertion which 
has as its object this, the abstentions and restraints and so 
on, which are means of effecting this result. 

The objector says that practice, blunted by hostile subliminal- 
impressions from fluctuations of rajas and tamas extremely 
powerful from time without beginning, is not capable of per- 
manence. In reply to this he says 

14. But this [practice] becomes confirmed when it has been 
cultivated for a long time and uninterruptedly and with earnest 

The word <But> is intended to remove a doubt. This prac- 
tice cultivated for a long time with earnest attention, in the 
form of self-castigation and chastity and science and belief, 
and with earnest attention acquires confirmed subliminal- 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 11 

impressions. And it is not overpowered by the subliminal- 
impressions of emergence. On the contrary it becomes capable 
of permanence. The Sacred Word [Pracna Up. i. 10] "But on 
the Northern [Path] by self-castigation and continence and 
belief and science having sought the Atman" shows what 
earnest attention is. 

The nature of passionlessness is described. 

15. Passionlessness is the consciousness of being master on the 
part of one ivho has rid himself of thirst for objects either seen 

or revealed. 
There are four forms of consciousness 1. the Yatamdna, 
2. the Vyatireka, 3. the Ekendriya, 4. the Vacikara. 1. The Yata- 
mana form of passionless consciousness is an effort to bring to 
completion the stains, resident in the mind-stuff full of passion 
and of other [hindrances], which are drawing the mental-pro- 
cesses to objects-of-sense. 2. Then the determination which 
separates a certain number of stains already come to completion 
from those which are coming to completion is the Vyatireka form 
of passionless conciousness. 3. Next the abiding in the central- 
organ of all those that are come to completion and are in- 
capable of drawing the mental-processes is the Ekendriya form 
of passionless conciousness. 4. [For objects] «seen» means for 
women, or food and drink. Revelation is Veda; that which 
is revealed is heard, [that is] revealed after it has been uttered 
by the spiritual-guide. Things as so defined are revealed. The 
passionlessness which is the <consceiousness of being master> 
(vacikara) is the distinguishing perception (apeksd-buddhi) on 
the part of <one who has rid himself of thirst> — as a result of 
immediately-presenting [to his mind] by practice such flaws 
as evanescence and anguish or the capacity-of-being-excelled 
and envy — of thirst for objects whether divine or not-divine, 
such for instance as heaven. 

The lower passionlessness having been declared he now 
describes the higher passionlessness. 

16. This [passionlessness] is the highest when discernment of the 
Self results in thirstlessness for the aspects (guna) [and not 

merely for objects]. 
The earlier passionlessness is the cause of the later. Ac- 
cordingly as a result of presenting-immediately [to his mind], 

12 James Haughton Woods, 

by practice, the kind of contemplation called the Kain-Cloud 
of [knowable] Things, there is that discernment of the Self 
which is understood from the verbal-communication of the 
spiritual guide. When once now there is the passionlessness 
called Mastery, as a result of seeing the flaws in objects after 
the mind-stuff not yet quite pure has followed up the aids to* 
yoga which are to be described, the mind-stuff from which the 
stains of tamas and rajas have been completely dispelled and 
which is finally sattva and nothing more, becomes absolutely 
undisturbed-calm. This same undisturbed-calm, the condition 
of the quite purified mind-stuff, the final limit of the Rain-Cloud 
of [knowable] Things, has [gradually] become the result of 
this same [Rain-Cloud]. — The higher passionlessness is the 
thirstlessness for aspects [and not merely for objects]. This is 
called by expects in Release the immediate-experience of the 
cause of release. At the rising of this [passionlessness] the 
yogin, all of whose hindrances have dwindled away and whose 
latent-deposit of karma with residuum has been washed away, 
is indifferent even to the discriminative discernment which he 
has accomplished and reflects thus, 'That which was to be 
accomplished has been accomplished; that which was sought 
has been found'. That mind-stuff which immediately succeeds 
this and which is reduced to subliminal-impressions not con- 
scious of objects and to nothing more is the higher passionless- 
ness. The lower passionlessness, on the other hand, is a con- 
dition of the mind-stuff which has ridden itself of tamas and 
which has a trace of the stain of rajas. In consequence of 
which there where [bodies] are resolved into primary-matter 
pars through an experience of power. In accordance with 
which it has been said, "As a result of passionlessness there 
is resolution into primary-matter". 

Having thus discussed practice and passionlessness, the 
Author [of the Sutras] in discussing what is to be effected by 
them points ont first of all that [concentration] conscious of 
an object is of four kinds. 

17. [Concentration becomes] conscious [of an object] by assuming 

forms either of deliberation or of reflection or of joy or of the 

feeling-of-persona lity. 

Just as in ordinary life a novice bowman pierces first only 

a gross mark and afterwards a minute mark, so the yogin, 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 13 

when a novice, by contemplation has direct-experience only 
of something coarse such as a gdlagrama stone. This imme- 
diate-experience of the coarse [object] the cause is delibera- 
tion (vitarka). Of this coarse [object] the cause is subtile, 
consisting of the subtile-elements and other [imperceptible 
things]; the immediate-experience of this subtile by contempla- 
tion is <reflection>. Sense-organs are coarse; and because 
they illumine they have the sattva form; the immediate- 
experience of these by contemplation is <joy>. The cause of 
these [sense-organs] is the thinking- substance; the sense-of- 
personality is because [the thinking-substance] has become one 
with the knower, [that is] the Self; the immediate-experience 
of this [sense-of-personality] by contemplation is said to be the 
<sense-of-personality>. And of these [four], the coarse is an 
object-to-be-known; the sense-organs are processes-of-knowing; 
the so-called sense-of-personality is the knower. The full com- 
pletion of contemplation with regard to these [three], knower 
and process-of- knowing and object-to-be-known, is yoga < con- 
scious [of an object]>. And this [kind of yoga] <by assuming> 
the four forms of deliberation or of reflection or of joy or of 
the feeling-of-personality is said to be [concentration] with 
deliberation or with reflection or with joy or with the feeling- 
of-personality. With regard to these [four kinds] the yoga 
with the coarse [object] has [at the same time] a coarse and 
a subtile and a joyous and a personal object, just as the per- 
ception of an earthen-jar has [at the same time] the clay [of 
which the jar is made] as its object; the yoga with the subtile 
[object] has three kinds of objects; the other two kinds have 
respectively two and one objects. This is the distinction 
mentioned by the Author of the Comment. In these cases, 
just as the perception of the clay does not have the earthen- 
jar as its object, so we must suppose that the [three kinds 
of] yoga, with reference to subtile and other objects, do not 
have the coarse object or the other objects [in their respec- 
tive order]. In the Gloss of Bhoja, however, after describing 
the [concentration-]with-deliberation as referring to the sense- 
organs; and after describing the [concentration-] with-reflection 
as referring to the [five] fine substances (Tanmdtra); [the author] 
describes the [concentration-]with-joy as referring to the per- 
sonality-substance [and] the [concentration-]with-the-feeling-of- 
personality as referring to the Great Entity, [the thinking 

14 James Haughton Woods, 

substance]. In that [book] 1. the personality-substance is the 
inner-organ which apprehends as its object the percept "I"; 
2. the feeling-of-personality is the inner-organ turned inwards 
and merged in the Great Entity, which is being and nothing 
more, and [so] flashes forth the sense of being and nothing 
more. This would be the distinction between these [last] two 
cases. The apprehender is the Self. 

He now describes the [concentration] conscious [of an ob- 
ject] and the method [of attaining it]. 

18. The other concentration [which is unconscious of an object] 
consists of subliminal-impressions only, [after objects have merged] 
and follows upon that practice which produces the cessation [of 


This [concentration] is that which <follows upon> [that is] 
has as its method the <practice> of that higher passionlessness 
which <produces> [that is] is the cause of that <cessation> 
[that is] the absence of fluctuations. By this word [<produces>] 
the method [of attainment] has been described. <The other > 
is that [unconscions of an object] which <consists of subliminal- 
impressions only>. For the higher passionlessness after having 
overpowered even the subliminal-impressions of [concentration] 
conscious [of an object] leaves only its own subliminal-impres- 
sions as a remainder. This is concentration without seed. 
Because there is nothing upon which it depends, since it has 
no seed of karma. 

Now this [concentration] is of two kinds: it is produced 
either by the worldly method or by the [spiritual] method. 
Of these two the first is to be rejected by those who aim at 
liberation; and this [first] he describes. 

19. [Concentration unconscious of an object] caused by existence- 
in-the-uorld is that to which the discarnate and those [whose 

bodies] are resolved into primary-matter attain. 

In any one of the evolved-effects from among the elements 
and organs, which are not-self, there is an idea (bhavana) of 
the self. To this extent those who, after the dissolution of the 
body, are resolved into elements and organs and are without 
the six-sheathed body are < discarnate >. Those who are resol- 
ved into unphenomenalized-matter or the Great [Thinking- 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprdbha. 15 

substance] or the personality-substance or the five fine-sub- 
stances, in so far they have an idea of the self with regard 
to these as evolving-causes , are called <those [whose bodies] 
are resolved into primary-matter >. Because the mind-stuff of 
these consists of subliminal-impressious only and nothing more, 
their [concentration] is not conscions [of an object]. But this 
[concentration] is < caused by existence-in-the-world>. Because 
in it creatures are caused, [that is] born, it is undifferentiated- 
consciousness (avidya), [that is] <existence-in-the-world>; and 
the production, [that is] the cause of it, is the idea of the not- 
self as being the self. Due to undifferentiated-consciousness, 
this yoga gives results that are perishable. As says the Vayu 
[Purana], "Ten Manu-periods the devotees of sense-organs 
remain here; a full hundred the worshippers of elements; those 
who identify themselves with illusions of personality remain 
without anxiety a thousand [Manu-periods] ; those who identify 
themselves with thinking-substances without anxiety, for ten 
thousand; those who contemplate upon unphenomenalized 
[primary-matter] stay for a full hundred thousand; but after 
attaining the Self who is out of relation with qualities there 
is no limit of time". The mind -stuff of those who have no 
discriminative insight, although it be absorbed, rises up and 
falls into the round- of-rebirths, just as a sleeping mind-stuff 
would do. 

Now he says what the second topic is. 

20. [Concentration not conscious of an object,] which follows 

upon faith and energy and mindfulness and concentration and 

insight is the one to which the others [the yogins] attain. 

The Selfs range of action is the <faith> that is full of 
sattva; this produces < energy > [that is] effort; this by the 
successive steps of abstentious and observances and the rest 
[leads to] <mindfulness> [that is] contemplation; [and] this to 
< concentration^ and this to < insight > [that is] practice, con- 
scious [of its object], in the discernment of the Self's range of 
action. As a result of this higher passionlessness <the others >, 
the yogins who are searching for release, gain [the yoga] not 
conscions [of an object]. 

The methods begin with faith and end with insight. When 
preceded by these this [concentration] is produced by the 

16 James Haughton Woods, 

[spiritual] method. These methods, moreover, in the case of living 
beings, under the compulsion of earlier subliminal-impressions, 
are gentle and moderate and vehement, of three kinds. And 
accordingly the yogins are three, the followers of the gentle, 
of the moderate, and of the vehement method. Among these 
three the follower of the gentle method is of three kinds, 
[that is] with gentle intensity, with moderate intensity, and 
with keen intensity. Likewise in the case of the other two 
[methods] there are three kinds [of intensities]. And thus there 
are nine [kinds of] yogins. These gain perfections slowly [or] 
more slowly, quickly [or] more quickly by reason of the grada- 
tion of method. Because perfection comes more quickly to 
some of these he says, 

21. [Concentration] is near for the keenly intense. 

For those yogins whose intensity, [that is] whose passionless- 
ness is keen and whose methods are vehement, concentration 
not conscious [of an object] is near. And from this comes 

22. There is a distinction even from this [near concentration] 
by reason of gentleness and moderation and vehemence. 

In the case also of keen intensity <by reason of gentleness 
and moderation and vehemence > there is, as compared with 
the concentration that is near, for the yogin of gently keen 
intensity [and] as compared with [the concentration] that is 
nearer, for [the yogin] of moderately keen intensity, an acqui- 
sition of concentration that is nearest, belonging to [the 
yogin] whose intensity is vehemently keen. Thus there is a 

23. Or [concentration is attained] by devotion to the Igvara. 

<By devotion> either mental or verbal or corporeal, by" a 
special kind of adoration <to the I§vara> the attainment of con- 
centration is most near. The word <Or> indicates that [the 
yogin] who uses the method of devotion has a choice in so far 
as he may use the methods previously described. For the 
Icvara, turned towards [him] by the devotion, without regard 
to anything other than the devotion, favors him by saying 
'Let this that he desires be his'. This is the point. 

Yoga-sutras ivith Maniprablta. 17 

He discusses the nature of the Icvara. 

2i. Untouched by hindrances, karma, fruition, or latent-deposits 
[of karma], the Icvara is a special kind of Self. 

Undifferentiated-consciousness (avidya) and the rest are the 
five <hindrances>. Right and wrong living are <karma>. The 
result of there two is <fruition>. The subliminal-impressions 
which correspond to the result are the <latent-impressions>. 
For (by derivation) they are latent (dgerate) in the central- 
organ. Just as in a man the subliminal-impressions [tending] 
to the eating of sticks in a birth as elephant intensify them- 
selves (for otherwise life would be impossible). A Self in the 
round-of-rebirth is touched by hindrances and so on resident 
in his mind-stuff, inasmuch as he is an enjoyer so long as he 
does not discriminate himself from mind-stuff. Whereas the 
Self which is out of relation to these even in [all] the three 
times is the Icvara. The word <special> which expresses the 
alsence of relation with the three times serves as the distinc- 
tion between [the Self] and released souls. Because in time 
past they were in relation with the three bonds, when resolved 
into primary-matter they have a bond to primary-matter; when 
resolved into evolved-forms [of primary-matter] either into ele- 
ments or organs, as discarnate beings they have a bond to 
evolved-forms; in other's, gods or men or so on, there is the 
bond to the South [the Way of the Fathers]. Because the 
fruition of karma depends upon the [particular kind of] mind- 
stuff. This is the difference. An objector asks 'If the highest 
power of the Self has the faculty of thinking and of action, 
how can you say that it is immutable'. The answer is that 
the Icvara has a mind-stuff perfect from time-without-beginn- 
ing and of pure sattva in its essence and originating from the 
primary-cause and with unexcelled faculties of thinking and of 
action. For He, the Exalted, with the desire to rescue livings- 
beings from the sea of the round-of rebirth assumes this mind- 
stuff, for without this it is not possible to exercise thinking or 
instruction in right-living or compassion upon adorers. And one 
should not ask how a desire could arise before He had assu- 
med mind-stuff. For the stream of creations and dissolutions 
is, like [the sucession of] seed and sprout, from time without 
beginning. When there is a dissolution of all effects, then the 
Exalted resolves 'In time to come, in order to show favor to 

2 JA08 34. 

18 James Haughton Woods, 

the world, this mind-stuff must be assumed'. Because (sat) the 
mind-stuff tinged by this resolve becomes merged in the 
primary-cause, at the beginning of a creation it becomes 
intense. And in such wise the I§vara shows favor. Thus [our 
contention] is without flaw. If an objector asks what the 
authority is for the existence (sattva) of such a mind-stuff, the 
reply is in such utterances of the Veda [Qvet. Up. vi. 8] as this 
"And He the Iijvara of all is self-inherent thinking and power 
and action". Thus the order i would be. The Veda was com- 
posed by an I<jvara distinguished for his unexcelled thinking 
and power. Consequently it is authoritative; this is the brief 

Thus because the Veda is authoritative, an all-knower, the 
Ievara is proved. He gives also an inferential-proof that He 
is all-knowing. 

25. In Him [the Igvara] the germ of the all-Mower it at its 
utmost eaxellsnce. 

Thinking such as ours must be inherently-connected with 
that which is at its utmost excellence, because it admits of 
degrees. Whatever admits of degrees, is always connected with 
the utmost excellence, which is of the same kind with it, just 
as the dimension of a water-pot is connected with the dimen- 
sion of the all-pervasive [atmosphere]. This <knowledge> which 
has been proved to be of the <utmost excellence> has a <germ> 
[that is] an implication of the all-knower; <In Him>, in whom 
knowledge is of the utmost excellence, it is known as having 
the quality of all-knower. This all-knower [thus] established 
in generic form has various designations, established by reve- 
lation (Qruti), such as Qiva or Visnu or Narayana or Mahecvara. 
And thus it is said in the Vayu-Purana [xii. 32] "Omniscience, 
Contentment, Limitless Knowledge, Freedom, Ever-unthwarted 
Energy, Infinite Energy — these are called by the knowers of 
the sacred-ordinance the six parts of the all-pervasive Mahec- 
vara. Knowledge, Passionlessness, Preeminence, Self-control, 

i The order would be 1. A dissolution, 2. Merging of effects, 3. Ee- 
solve in the iQvara's mind-stuff, 4. Tinging of this mind-stuff, 5. Merging 
in the primary-cause, 6. Intensification of the impression in the mind- 
stuff at the beginning of the new creation. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha- 19 

Truth, Patience, Perseverance, Creative Energy, Right Know- 
ledge of Self, and Competency to rule the creation abide 
eternally in Qankara". Similarly in the Mahabharata "By 
praising Visnu, who is without beginning or end, the great 
Lord of all the world, the Ruler of the World, he would for- 
ever pass beyond all pain" and in similar passages. 

He describes the difference between this Exalted One and 
Brahma with the rest [of the gods]. 

26. Teacher of the Primal [Sages] also, forasmuch as [with 
Him] there is no limition of time. 

<Of the Primal [Sages] > [that is] of those limited by time 
who arise at the beginning of the creation. The < Teacher > 
[that is] the Icvara. Why is this? <Forasmuch as [with Him] 
there is no limitation of time> [that is] because he has no 
boundary at the beginning. And in this sense the revelation 
(Qruti) [Qvet. Up. vi. 18] "To Him who first made Brahma and 
who sent forth the Vedas" and in similar passages. 

Having thus discussed the Icvara, in order to tell what de- 
votion to Him is, he tells his secret name. 

27. The word-expressing Him is the Mystic- Syllable. 

The sutra is easy. An objector says 'The expressiveness of 
a words is its so-called denotative significance, the relation 
between the word and its object. Is this significance made by 
the conventional-usage, or is it revealed [by the conventional- 
usage]? It is not the first [alternative; that is, the faculty is 
made by the usage]. Because this would involve that the 
Icvara, who [would] be quite independent [of the past], would 
fit together the word and the intended-object, which would be 
different from the conventional-usage. Nor is it the second 
[alternative, that is, the significance is revealed by the usage]. 
Because [if the usage of the Icvara is there] it is superfluous 
for a father to make for his sons the conventional-usage of the 
word 'sun' or of other words. For there is no significance 
{cdkti) which could be revealed [merely] by the conventional- 
usage of the father (tatra). And if there is nothing to be 
revealed [that is, a gakti], then a revealer [that is, a samketa] 
would be of no use. Accordingly this conventional -usage 

20 James Haughton Woods, 

[mentioned in the sutra] would be useless.' If this is objected, 
the reply would be this. 

The significance remains » all the time; and is only revealed 
by the conventional-usage. Just as the relation between father 
and son which remains all the time is revealed by the state- 
ment 'This is my son'. Likewise the Icvara makes us know 
by the conventional-usage the significance, of this or that word 
for this or that intended-object, which is always permanent, and 
which in any word, such as 'cow', is reduced at the time of 
a dissolution to [the condition of] the primary-cause and is 
intensified again together with its significance at the time of 
a creation. Whereas the subliminal -impressions of living- 
beings are broken. But the conventional-usage of a father, 
for instance, living today causes the significance to appear. 
Yet there are some who say that all words have significance 
for all intended-objects. So [the conclusion is that] the con- 
ventional-usage of the father or of others is also a revealer; 
but the words 'cow' or other words are restricted by the 
Icvara to a particular intended-object in order to give a fixity 
to the objects-intended by the Veda. So they say. Thus it 
is proved that even in all cases the Vedic relation between 
word and intended-object is permanent (nitya) in so far as it 
fixes what is expressed. 

Having thus described the expressive-word he tells of the 

28. Its repetition and reflection on its meaning [should be 


The Comment of this is written «The repetition on the 
Mystic Syllable (jpranava) and reflection upon the Icvara who 
is to be denoted by the Mystic Syllable. Then in the case 
of this yogin who thus repeats the Mystic Syllable and reflects 
on its meaning his mind attains to singleness-of-intent. And 
so it has been said [VP. vi. 7. 33f.] 

"Through study let him practise yoga 
Through yoga let him meditate on study. 
By perfectness in study and in yoga 
Supreme soul shines forth clearly."» 

1 This is of course the point missed by the objector. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 21 

For this devotion to the Igvara the acquisition of concentration 
as the result is the nearest [method]; this has been previously 
[i. 22] stated. Now he tells of another result which corresponds 
with this. 

29. From this [devotion] comes the knowledge of him who 
thinks in an inverse way, also the removal of obstacles. 

A self is inverted (pratyanc) in the sense that it represents 
(ancati), that is, understands in a reversed (pratipam), that is, 
opposite way [to the ordinary man whose mind-stuff flows out 
and is modified by objects]. This word describes the difference 
from the Igvara or else something other than the thinking- 
substance. This <thinking> is inverted; its <knowledge> [that 
is] its direct experience comes <from this> devotion. And 
besides there is <also the removal of obstacles >. The objector 
asks 'How can there be a direct experience of one's self com- 
ing from a devotion to the Igvara who is different from one's 
self. Because the practice and the thinking resulting from it 
have a perception (dargana) of some one object such as the 
fourth-primary-note'. The reply is this. Just as the Igvara 
is unaffected [by objects] and consists of intellect (cit) and is 
absolutely unchanged and is without hindrance or any such 
thing, just so is the soul (jiva) on account of its similarity 
[to the Igvara]. The contemplation of the Igvara by virtue 
of His favor is the cause of the direct-experience of the soul 
as such. Thus there is no flaw in the argument. 

He tells of the obstacles. 

30. Sickness, languor, doubt, heedlessness, listlessness, worldliness, 

erroneous perception, failure to attain any stage, and instability 

in the stage [when attained] — these distractions of the mind-stuff 

are the obstacles. 

< These distractions of the mind-stuff > which distract the 
mind-stuff, [that is] cause it to lapse from yoga, are the nine 
obstacles [that is] obstructions of yoga. Of these [nine] 
<sickness> is a disorder of the wind or bile or phlegm or of 
the organs which secrete food. <Languor> is an incapacity 
for action on the part of the mind- stuff although it is attracted. 
<Doubt> is familiar enough. <Heedlessness> is a failure to 
follow up the aids to yoga. <Listlessness> is a lack of effort 

22 James Haughton Woods, 

due to heaviness of body. <Worldliness> is a greed for objects- 
of-sense. <Erroneous perception > is a misconception which 
sees only one alternative of a dilemma. < Failure to attain 
any stage > is a failure to gain any stage of concentration. 
The Honeyed (madhumati) and the other stages of concentra- 
tion will be described. <Failure to attain any stage> so-called, 
is a lack of steadiness on the part of the mind-stuff in the 
stage which has been attained. For the mind-stuff when 
established in the earlier stage should produce the next stage. 
Lack of steadiness is accordingly a defect. 

These distractions not only destroy yoga, but also give pain 
and so on. 

31. Pain, despondency, unsteadiness of the body, inspiration, 
and expiration are accompaniments of the distractions. 

<Pain> produced by disease is corporeal, produced by love 
and so on is mental; both of these two proceed from self; pro- 
duced by tigers and so on it proceeds from living creatures; 
produced by the baleful influence of planets or something of 
the kind it proceeds from the gods. < Unsteadiness of the 
body> is the state of one unsteady in body, a trembling of the 
limbs. < Inspiration > is breathing involuntarly which makes 
the outer wind enter within; it is opposed to emission (recaka) 
which is [voluntary], an aid to concentration. Similarly <ex- 
piration> is the out-going of the abdominal wind involuntarily; 
it is opposed to inhalation. These arise in the distracted 
mind-stuff together with the distractions. 

He draws the discussion to a close by saying that these 
cease to be as a result of devotion to the Icvara. 

32. To check them [let there be] practice upon a single entity. 

To destroy the distractions <practice> [that is] contempla- 
tion should be performed upon a single entity [that is] upon 
the Icjvara. On this point, with regard to the question of the 
Momentary (Jksanika) theory which asks whether, if the mind- 
stuff is durable (sthdyin), its focussed state may be attained, 
the author of the Comment proves that by, for instance, re- 
cognizing 'This is I', this mind -stuff is found to be one and 
implicated in many objects and durable. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 23 

He tells of the methods for removing the taints of the mind- 
stuff that is tainted with envy and similar [vices] by bringing 
it into touch (ayoga) with yoga. 

33. By the cultivation of friendliness towards happiness and 

compassion towards pain and joy towards merit and indifference 

towards demerit [the yogin should attain] the undisturbed -calm 

of the mind-stuff. 

He should cultivate <friendliness> [that is, friendship] towards 
living beings who are in happiness; towards those who are in 
pain, <compassion> [that is] sympathy; towards those whose 
lives are meritorious, <joy> [that is] gladness; towards those 
who lives are evil, who are called demeritorious, < indifference >. 
By this cultivation an <undisturbed-calm> of the mind-stuff is 
gained. As a result of the cultivations, as described in order 
with reference to happiness and the rest, the external-aspect 
{dharma) [of the mind-stuff] which is full of sattva is produced. 
As a result of destroying jealousy, the desire to injure, envy, 
and hatred, the taints of the mind, with regards to these [classes 
of persons] are destroyed; and by virtue of the bright external- 
aspect the mind-stuff becomes undisturbedly calm. And when 
it has become undistnrbedly calm, by methods to be described 
[it becomes] focussed and gains the stable state. This is the 
outcome of the argument. 

Now after the cultivation of friendliness and the other 
[sentiments] he describes the methods for keeping the mind- 
stuff which is [in the state of] undisturbed-calm in the stable 

34. Or [the yogin shoidd attain the undisturbed-calm of the 
mind-stuff] by expulsion and retention of breath. 

<Expulsion> is emission; there is <retention> of the emitted 
air outside. By using there to the best of one's power the 
mind-stuff gains stability upon one point-of-direction. If the 
breath is subdued, there is a subdual of the mind-stuff, because 
the two are not separate. After the restraint of the breath 
has caused all evil to cease, the mind-stuff becomes steady 
with regard to the cessation of evil. The word <or> expresses 
an option with regard to the other means which are to be 
described, but not with regard to the cultivation of friendli- 

24 James Haughton Woods, 

ness and the others. Because it must be supposed that the 
cultivation of these [latter] is connected [with them] inasmuch 
as they act as accessories to all the [other] aids. 

Hedescribes the other aids. 

35. Or by a process connected with an object the central-organ 

[comes into] the relation of stability. 

By constraining the mind-stuff upon the tip of the nose he 
has a direct experience of super-normal odors; by constraint 
upon the tip of the tongue he has the consciousness of super- 
normal taste; upon the palate, the consciousness of color; upon 
the middle of the tongue, the consciousness of touch; upon the 
root of the tongue, the consciousness of sound. These cons- 
ciousnesses, processes connected with objects such as odors, 
when quickly produced, having produced confidence, bring about 
a relation of stability between the central-organ and the Icvara 
or a similar object, which are very subtile things. When any 
point specially laid down by the authoritative-books is found 
to be in experience, then the yogin 1 passes on towards con- 
straint in faith with regard even to something very subtile. 

36. Or a griefless, luminous [process brings the central-organ 

into a relation of stability]. 

After he has contemplated by emission {recalta) [of breath] 
the eight-petalled lotus of the heart, as a result of constraint 
upon the vein, situated with mouth upward in the pericarp of 
this [lotus], and called Susumna, consciousness of the central- 
organ follows. This central- organ assumes in many ways the 
forms of those rays which belong to the sun or moon or planets 
or gems. This [pure] light of the saltva is the central-organ. 
The cause of this [central-organ] is the personality-substance, 
waveless like the Great Sea and pervasive. As a result of 
constraint upon the light as such which belongs to this per- 
sonality-substance, consciousness arises. This is that two-fold 
consciousness. The central-organ or the so-called personality- 
substance, when having a luminous object, is called <luminous>; 
it is <griefless> [that is] without pain; [this] process when it 
is produced is the cause of the central-organ's stability. 

i Reading yogi. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 25 

37. Or the mind-stuff has as its object one [ivhose mind-stuff] 

is freed from -passion. 

The mind-stuff of the yogin which is fixedly attentive to that 
mind-stuff as its object which is <freed from passion>, one 
[that is] belonging to Vyasa or to Quka or to such as they. 

38. Or the mind-stuff [is influenced] by thinking derived in 

dream or in sleep. 

The word <thinking> refers to something to be thought. 
While worshipping in dream the very beautiful embodiment 
of the Exalted One he should attentively fix the mind-stuff on 
that alone. In deep sleep he should attend fixedly to the 
pleasure therein. In such wise, supported by the object 
thought in dream or in sleep, his mind-stuff gains stability. 

39. Or [the mind-stuff gains the stable position] by contemplating 

upon that object which he desires. 

What need of saying more? Let him contemplate upon 
whatever [divinity] he desires. [The mind-stuff] having gained 
stability there, gains stability in other cases also. The an- 
alysis [of the compound] is: <by contemplating > upon <that 
object which he desires> [that is] by not passing outside his 

The objector asks 'If it be true that stability of the mind- 
stuff is produced, what is there to make this known?' 

40. His mastery extends from the smallest atom to the Supreme 


<Mastery> [that is] freedom from obstruction <extends> to 
the <smallest atom> and belongs to <it (asya)> [that is] to the 
mind-stuff which enters into a subtile object. Likewise there 
is freedom from obstruction, which extends to the Supreme 
Greatness, [that is] to space, belonging to the mind-stuff which 
enters a coarse object. Having known by this supreme mastery 
that the mind-stuff has gained stability, he desists from follow- 
ing up the means of stability. 

Thus the means for the stability of the mind-stuff having 
been described; and the mastery which makes this known having 

26 James Hauyliton Woods, 

been described; what now is the object of the mind-stuff which 
has gained stability; and of what does it cousist? In reply 
to this he recites the answer. 

41. The mind-stuff from which, as from a noble gem, the 

fluctuations have dwindled away reaches the balanced - state 

which rests in the knower or the processes-of-knoiving or the 

object-for-knowledge, and which is colored by them. 

Just as <a noble> [that is] high-class and quite pure crystal 
<gem> when colored by an hibiscus or some other flower, by 
the disappearance of its own color gains a red on some other 
kind of color, so as a result of practice and passionlessness 
the gem of the mind-stuff from which fluctuations of rajas and 
tamas have dwindled away, by giving up its own nature is 
affected — in so far as it is an object- to-be-known which is in 
essence a coarse or fine element, or in so far as it is the pro- 
cesses-of-knowing [that is] the organs-of-sense, or the knower 
[that is] the Self, the so-called feeling-of-personality previously 
[i. 17] described — and acquires that [yoga] in accordance with 
the kind of object into which it is changed (apatti). By assum- 
ing forms either of deliberation or of reflection or of joy or 
of the feeling-of-personality previously [i. 17] described it is to 
be understood as being of four kinds, as having four objects. 
In this sutra by following the order of the objects intended 
(after breaking [the order of] the reading [of the sutra]) the 
mind-stuff, when affected by 1. the object-for-knowledge, 2. the 
processes-of-knowing, and 3. the knower, < rests in> these by 
giving up its own nature and assuming a complete change. 
This is the way of explaining [the sutra] because mind-stuff 
is affected by the knower in the order of the coarse and [then 
of] the subtile. The word <rests in> should be taken as a 
separate word. Although it has no declination, we should 
understand it to be the genitive singular and then connect 
ksinavrtter with tatsthasya. Or else, tatstham and tadanjanam 
are two coordinate [members of the compound] and the ending 
— ta is added to denote an abstract noun. 1 That is to say, 

i In the first case the translation would be <tlie mind-stuff from which 
fluctuations have dwindled away>. In the second case it would be 
,because of the dwindling of the fluctuations the mind-stuff pains the 
balanced state'. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 27 

after the dwindling of the fluctuations as a result of this [state, 
the bhava] there is the balanced state. 

This same balanced state, the so-called conscions [yoga], 
however, is of four kinds, with deliberation, and super-delibe- 
rative (nirvitarka), with reflection, and super -reflective. Of 
these [four], he describes the [yoga] with deliberation. 

42. Of these [balanced-states] that with deliberation is mixed 
with predicate-relations between words and things and ideas, 

<Of these> [that is] from among these balanced -states, 
this is the balanced- state with deliberation. To explain. 
If we say 'cow', three things appear undistinguished [in 
consciousness]. This being so, when we think of 'cow' as a 
word, there is one predicate-relation. For this predicate- 
relation has as its object the word which has not been 
distinguished from the thing and from the idea which 
have been derived from [the word] 'cow'. Similarly the thing 
'cow' is another predicate-relation. In this case, the predicate- 
relation has as its object the thing which has not been dist- 
inguished from the w r ord and from the idea which have been 
derived from [the thing] 'cow'. Likewise there is another pre- 
dicate-relation the idea 'cow'; but this refers to the idea which 
has not been distinguished from the word and from the thing 
which have been derived from the [idea] 'cow'. These same 
are predicate-relations because they refer to a false kind of 
failure to distinction. Thus such statements as 'the water-jar 
is a piece of cloth' are to be understood as predicate-relations. 
In this [system], just as, in so far as there is a failure to 
distinguish [things] from words and ideas, the direct-experience 
(produced by the concentration of the yogin's mind-stuff con- 
centrated upon some coarse object in predicate-relation, a 
cow, for instance) grasps even an imaginary thing, so this con- 
centrated insight <mixed> with predicate-relations of words 
and things and ideas becomes like them, because it is of the 
same quality as the predicate-relations. In other words this 
mixed [balanced-state] is the balanced-state with delibera- 

He describes the super-deliberative [balanced- state]. 

28 James Haughton Woods, 

43. When the memory is quite purified, [that balanced -state] 
which seems empty of itself, and which appears as the object 
only, is the super-deliberative [balanced-state]. 
The significant conventional-usage of words such as 'cow' is 
commonly understood with regard to things in predicate-rela- 
tions only. By remembering this [conventional-usage] there is 
a memory which pertains to words. And only a predicate- 
relation inferred from some other thing arises. And so a 
balanced-state with deliberation arises the origin of which is 
a predicate-relation consisting in an action of hearing or of 
inferring with regard to a thing heard or inferred. <When 
the memory is quite purified > [that is] when the memory of 
the conventional-usage is given up because the mind-stuff 
which aims at the thing intended and nothing more is fixed 
upon the thing-intended only. After giving up the predicate- 
relation which is the effect of this, the concentrated insight, 
<seeming empty of itself> [that is] of its own condition of 
knower which consists in insight, because it < appears at the 
object only>, appears only as that object-for-knowledge which 
consists in a thing out of predicate-relations. In other words 
it is the super- deliberative balanced-state. In it there is a 
direct-experience with deliberation, which is a lower kind of 
perception because it has predicate-relations. But the super- 
deliberative is higher because its object is a true object. And 
this true object is to be understood as being a whole such as 
a cow or a water-jar. With regard to the doubt as to the 
Buddhist theory which states that in the case of this [real 
object] there is no whole over and above the group of atoms 
[of which it is composed], there is [a whole], inasmuch as if it 
is sure that one single water-jar is of a certain size (mahan), 
there is nothing to contradict the experience. And this [whole] 
in our system is a mutation of atoms which consist of subtile 
elements, And this [mutation, which is a whole] is identical, 
yet it has a difference in unity with its material cause [the 
atoms]. This is proved in the Comment. 

44. By this same [balanced-state] the reflective and the super- 
reflective [balanced-states] which have subtile objects have been 

explained [in respect of the giving up of predicate-relations]. 

That balanced-state with reference to those objects which 
have been particularized by a multitude of properties belonging 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 29 

to their own peculiar causes or effects or place or time, and 
which are in predicate-relations in so far as the objects have 
not been distinguished from the ideas or the words which ex- 
press them, — [objects] which are subtile, arranged as consist- 
ing of elements and as being evolved-effects of the five fine 
substances (tanmatra), that is, the atoms, which are adapted 
to serve as material cause for coarse mutations such as water- 
jars — this [balanced-state] is said to be <with reflections That 
balanced-state with regard to the same atoms when they are 
the things themselves and nothing more, empty of all attri- 
butes is super-deliberative (nirvicara). This now consisting of 
the real thing and nothing more is the concentrated insight 
and appears as if empty of itself. And in so far as the de- 
liberative and the super- deliberative [balanced-states] are ex- 
plained as referring to something coarse, the reflective and the 
super-reflective are explained as having subtile objects. 

The objector asks 'Does the balanced-state with regard to 
the object- to-be-known end with the atoms?' The answer 
is, No. 

45. The subtile object also terminates in unresoluble [primary 


<The subtile object> of this balanced-state terminates in the 
unresoluble primary cause. To explain. The atom of earth is 
produced from the fine substance smell, to which the other 
fine substances are subordinate. But [the atom] of water, 
after the fine substance smell has been excluded, is from 
the fine substance of taste, to which the other fine substances 
are subordinate. Whereas [the atom] of fire, after the pair 
smell and taste have been excluded, [is produced] from the 
fine substance of color, to which the other two are subordinate. 
But [the atom] of water [is produced] from the previously 
rejected fine substance of touch, and has subordinate to it the 
fine substance of sound. Whereas the atom of air is produced 
from the single fine substance of sound only. This is the pro- 
cedure. Accordingly the five fine substances are the material 
causes for the evolved-effects, the atoms, and are [with respect 
to them] subtile. And as compared with them the personality- 
substance is subtile. And as compared with it the Great 
[thinking substance is subtile]. And as compared with the 

30 James Houghton Woods, 

Great, the primary-cause [is subtile]. For this does not become 
resolved, therefore it is called unresoluble [primary matter]. 
Higher than this there is nothing subtile as material cause, 
because the Self is not the material cause for the sattva. For 
the Self because it has experience and liberation as its pur- 
poses is nothing but efficient cause for the creation, which has 
the purposes of the Self as its efficient cause. Therefore it 
is proved that the balanced-state with regard to a subtile 
object-for-knowledge terminates in the primary-cause. 

Thus the four balanced-states with regard to a coarse and 
a subtile object-for-knowledge have been described. He now 
brings to a conclusion the discussion of the fact that they are 

46. These same are the seeded concentration. 
And in so far as there is the distinction between predicate 
and non-predicate relation in the case of processes-of-knowing 
and of the knower, there are four balanced-states 1. with joy 
and 2. joy and nothing more, 3. with the feeling-of-personality 
and 4. the feeling of personality in conformity with the rule 
described. Thus <these same>, the eight balanced- states are 
<the seeded concentration > [that is, concentration] conscious 
[of an object]. So long as there is no discriminative discern- 
ment, because there is the seed of bondage, the state of having 
seed must be recognized. 

Here he describes the supremacy of the super-reflective 
balanced-state in respect of its result. 

47. When clearness of the super-reflective [balanced-state] arises, 
then the yogin gains the inner undisturbed-calm. 
The sattva of the thinking-substance from which the taints 
of rajas and tamas have been removed has a flow of pure 
fluctuations stable in quality; its range is to the subtile object- 
for-knowledge which ends in the primary-cause; and this is 
the < clearness > of the super-reflective balanced-state. In this. 
Taking in his grasp, in the order of reality, the whole assem- 
blage of entities from the atom to the primary-cause he abides 
in his own self, <he gains the inner undisturbed-calm.> 

He tells the technical name approved by yogins for this 

Yoga-sutras icith Maniprabha. 31 

48. In this [clearness of the mind-stuff] the insight is truth- 

In him (tasya) the super-reflective insight, which arises pro- 
duced by concentration when this clearness has arisen, becomes 
the consciousness called <truth-b earing. > Because the etymo- 
logy is that it bears truth [that is] unpredicated reality. He 
tells how the object of this is distinguished from false sources- 

49. This has a different object than the insight of oral- 
communication or of inference, inasmuch as it refers to the 


The significance of any word such as 'cow' is in the common 
charactistic of the genus 'cow', not in the particular individuals. 
For these are innumerable and it is impossible to know them. 
Similarly the concomitance also gives you only the common 
characteristic of fieriness. Hence a generic thing is the object 
of the insight in oral-communication and in inference. So in 
ordinary life after one has a knowledge of words and of a 
middle term (linga), one knows cow in general and fire in 
general and not any particular individuality. This is everyone's 
own experience. Although sense-perception has some particular 
cow or piece of cloth as its object, still a subtile or hidden 
or remote particular is the peculiar object of concentrated 
insight. And if the concentrated insight has power-to-apprehend 
(prasanti) subtile and other things, enlightened by oral-com- 
munication or by inference, you should not ask whether it can 
have within its range particulars which are beyond the range 
of oral-communication and inference which are its own origin. 
For the thinking-substance has of itself the power of knowing 
all things. For the sattva of the thinking-substance, which is 
in essence light, although it has capacity to know all intended- 
objects, yet if obscured by tamas has little as its object as 
compared with ordinary-proof. But when its cover of tamas 
has gone away, by reason of the concentration, enlightening 
on all sides, it passes beyond ordinary proof, then because of 
the endlessness 1 of light what can there be which is not within 
its range? Therefore concentrated insight because particular 
intended objects are within its range has one object and 

1 Reading prakaganantyat. 

32 James Haughton Woods, 

ordinary proof has another object. This has been said [MBh 
xii. 530] 'As a man standing on a crag sees persons on the 
ground below, so a man of insight having risen to the pinnacle 1 
of insight, himself free from pain, sees all creatures in pain, 
[below].' The word 'creatures' means those who have no con- 
centration, those who are slaves of ordinary proof. 

The objector says 'If the concentrated insight is overpowered 
by very powerful subliminal-impressions from the experience of 
sounds and other [perceptible] objects, it does not gain stabi- 
lity'. In reply to this he says. 

50. The subliminal-impression produced by this [super-reflective 
balanced-state] is hostile to other subliminal-impressions. 

<The subliminal-impression > produced by the super-reflective 
concentration is <hostile> that is <inhibitory> to emergent 
subliminal-impressions. The emergent subliminal -impression 
because it is not iu contact with [one of] the entities is in- 
hibited by the subliminal-impression of the [concentrated] in- 
sight which is in contact with an entity. When these [emer- 
gent subliminal-impressions] are inhibited, emergent presented 
ideas do not arise. Whereas the concentrated insight does 
arise. From this there is a subliminal-impression over and over 
again. So because the subliminal-impressions from concentra- 
tion accumulate, when the hindrances are completely dwindled 
away, the mind-stuff becomes disgusted with experience and 
turns towards the Self; having accomplished the discriminative 
dicernment, its task done, it becomes resolved [into its primary 
cause], because its predominance in finished. For the move- 
ment of the mind-stuff terminates at the time of the [discrimi- 
native] discernment. 

The objector asks 'If the mind-stuff which is full of sublimi- 
nal-impressions from consciouly concentrated insight accom- 
plishes in succession the insights of this [concentration], how 
can it accomplish seedless concentration?' In reply to this 
he says. 

1 The change of one vowel- quantify makes this word mean undisturhed- 


Toga-sutras with Maniprablia. 33 

51. When this [subliminal-impression] also is restricted, since all 
is restricted, [the yogin gains] seedless concentration. 

After the discernment of the Self [and] in so far as there 
is an accumulation of subliminal-impressions of the higher 
passionlessness, <this> subliminal-impression from the cons- 
ciously concentrated insight, and the insight itself as implied 
by the word <also> <is restricted. > Because all the stream 
of insights and of subliminal-impressions from them is restricted. 
For the mind-stuff has nothing to do inasmuch as its predo- 
minance is ended, according to the rule "When there is no 
cause there is no effect" and the seedless concentration comes 
to pass. This has been said. "Preparing his consciousness 
in a three-fold manner by the Sacred Tradition and by in- 
ference and by eagerness for practice in contemplation he 
gains the highest yoga". In other words, by the Veda, by 
reasoning, by the higher passionlessness [that is] eagerness for 
the so-called Rain-Cloud of [knowable] Things [that is] practice 
in the contemplation of the Self and nothing more, by directly 
experiencing the Self, he gains the seedless yoga. In course 
of time, when there is an accumulation of subliminal-impressions 
of restriction, which are seedless, the mind-stuff resolves itself 
into its primary matter since there is no reason for it [to 
remain]. Because the reason for the stability of the mind-stuff 
is its predominance characterized by something to be done. 
For the mind-stuff which has the discriminative discernment 
and which has finished its experience has nothing to be done 
Therefore it is proved that the Self, when the mind-stuff is 
dissolved, is grounded in nothing but itself, isolated, released. 

Book Second: Means of attainment. 

In the previous Book after stating what yoga is and after 
having described its characteristic-mark and explained the 
fluctuations and made known practice and passionlessness as 
methods for restricting them; and after describing certain 
methods for steadying the mind-stuff, the two kinds of yoga 
with the subdivisions was made known. In this book assuming 
that practice and passionlessness have been established as 
means for purifying the mind-stuff, he first describes the yoga 
of action which is the reason for the purity of this [mind-stuff]. 

3 JAOS 34. 

34 James Haughton Woods, 

1. The yoga of action is self-castigation and study and devotion 

to the Igvara. 

In this Book the means of attainment of the yoga described 
in the previous book are described. This is the connection 
of these two Books. Continence, service of the spiritual guide, 
speaking truth, stock-stillness (Mstha-mduna) and silence of 
countenance (akara-manna), duties appropriate to one's stage 
of life, endurance of extremes, measured food, and the like — 
this is <self-castigation.> < Study > is the repetition of purify- 
ing formulas, such as the Mystic Syllable or [the verses to] 
the Exalted Rudra, or the Hymn to the Purusa [RV. x. 90] 
or the reading of books on release. The offering of actions, 
done without attachment to the result, to the Supreme Teacher, 
the Icvara is < devotion to the Icvara>. These are the yoga 
which consists in action because they are means of attaining 

He describes the result of the yoga of action. 

2. For the cultivation of concentration and the attenuation of 

the hindrances. 

When the hindrances are dense, concentration is not per- 
fected. Accordingly the yoga of action attenuates the hind- 
rances and cultivates concentration. Attenuation is the occa- 
sional appearance of hindrances which [otherwise] appear at 
all times. Cultivation is the bringing about of concentration. 
<Por> this is that whose result is this. By the yoga of action 
having obtained an opportunity in the intervals of the hind- 
rances, concentration brings the discriminative discernment to 
pass and burns the hindrances together with the subconscious 
impressions. This is the point. 

Now of what sort are- the hindrances and how many are 
they? In reply to this he says. 

3. Undifferentiated-consciousness (avidya) and the feeling of 
personality and passion and hatred and the will-to-live are the 

Jive hindrances. 

They hinder, [that is] in that they give an impulse to karma 
and its results they give pain to the Self. So they are called 
<hindrances.> And they are five. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprdbha. 35 

With regard to these [five], in so far as the four are the 
effects of undifferentiated-consciousness, he says that they have 
undifferentiated-consciousness as their essence. 

4. Undifferentiated-consciousness is the field for the others whether 
they be dormant or attenuated or intercepted or sustained. 

<Of the others> beginning with the feeling-of-personality un- 
differentiated-consciousness is the field > [that is] the propaga- 
tive soil. He describes the different subdivisions of these by 
saying <dormant.> Dormant or attenuated or intercepted or 
sustained — of these. Of these [four], the hindrances which 
belong to yogins who are discarnate or whose [bodies] are 
resolved into the primary-matter are dormant, because they 
remain unburned, in potential form, so long as there is no 
discriminative discernment. Accordingly at the end they appear 
again. — Attenuated hindrances belong to active yogins. — Inter- 
cepted belong to those who are attached to objects and become 
sustained. Just as Chaitra's anger is intercepted towards the 
woman for whom he feels a passion, and his passion is sustai- 
ned, so passion is intercepted for that person towards whom 
one's anger is sustained. In time it becomes sustained and 
hinders man and beast. These hindrances have their root in 
undifferntiated-consciousness. When this ceases, as a result 
of the Self becoming perceptibly perceived, they cease, just as 
the hindrances of one who is liberated during life [cease]. 
When one can say that they have dwindled away, then this 
would be regarded as a fifth state of the hindrances. 

Of these [five] he describes the nature of undifferentiated- 

5. The recognition of the permanent in the impermanent, of 
the pure in the impure, of pleasure in pain, of self in the non- 
self is undifferentiated-consciousness (avidya). 

That is, the thought of a thing with reference to what is not 
that thing. If one thinks that the gods are deathless as the result 
of the error of [finding] the permanent in the impermanent 
one performs sacrifice for the sake of a divinity and is bound. 
Similarly as a result of finding purity in impurity, in the body 
of a woman one is bound. This is said by the Exalted Divine 
Vyasa 'Because purification must be applied, the learned know 

36 James Haughton Woods, 

that the body is, because of its [first] abode, of its seed, of 
its sustenance, of its exudations, and of its decease, impure.' 
Its <abode> is the mother's belly full of excrement and urine. 
Its <seed> is semen and blood. Its <sustenance> is secretions 
and the like from mutations of food. Its < exudations > are the 
issue of filth from all the doors [of the body]. Its <decease> 
is death. If so, even the body of the Brahmin is endlessly 
impure. It needs [constant] purification, [that is] by bathing, 
anointing, and the like purity is attained. — Likewise there is 
the error of [finding] pleasure in enjoyment which has the pain 
of mutation [hi. 15]. — There is the recognition of the self in 
what is non-self, for instance, the thinking-substance. In other 
words, <undifferentiated-consciousness> is contrary to the 
consciousness of reality. Although there are undifferentiated- 
consciousnesses of the mother-of-pearl and of the silver and 
so on, still this undifferentiated-consciousness of just four kinds 
is the root of bondage. This is the point. 

6. The feeling <-o] ^-personality is a fusion, as it appears to be, 
of the power of seeing and of the power of the sight 

The power of seeing is the Self. The sight 1 in the sense 
that it is seen; the thinking -substance is the power of this. 
The word <power> has the meaning of predisposition. An 
identity [that is] oneness of essence has been accomplished by 
undifferentiated-consciousness between the enjoyer and the 
power of being enjoyed which are predisposed [to each other] 
but absolutely discriminate, the seer and the thing to be seen. 
By the words <as it appears to be> he indicates that an error 
with regard to identity has been made when one thinks 'I am.' 
In other words this is <the feeling-of-personality.> "This is 
the knot of the heart" as those 2 who hold the theory of the 
Brahman say. 

He explains that passion is the effect of the feeling-of- 

7. Passion is that which dwells upon pleasure. 

When there is an experience of pleasure, that longing which 
there is in memory for another pleasure of the same kind or 

i According to the Varttika dargana means organ-oi'-sight {karana). 
2 Compare Mund. Up. ii. 2. 8, and Katha Up. vi. 15. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 37 

for the means of attaining it is < passion. > [This passion] 
dwells upon pleasure [that is] makes it its object; so it is said 
to < dwell upon pleasures 

8. Hatred is that which dwells upon pain. 

That anger which is in the memory of him who felt the pain 
towards pain and the means of pain is <hatred.> 

9. Sweeping on [by the force of] its own nature the will-to-live 
(abhinivega) exists in this form even in the wise. 

That fear of death in a creature just born, whether [he is 
to be] a wise man or a fool, is the will-to-live. Just as fear 
exists in the fool when he wishes 'May I always be,' so it 
exists [that is] is found <even in the wise.> It < sweeps on 
[by the force of] its own nature > in the sense that is flows 
[that is] flows onward by its own nature which is an attach- 
ment to a subconscious-impression produced by an experience 
of the pain of death more than once in previous births. By 
means of this fear the Comment shows incidentally that the 
soul is over and above the body. For even in a child just 
born the fear of death is found and this could not be ex- 
plained unless there were a memory of previous death. These 
five, moreover, undifferentiated-consciousness and the rest are 
called (Gaudapada's Bhasya on Saiiikhya Karika xlviii) 
"Gloom, infatuation, great infatuation, darkness, blind dark- 
ness." Of these [five], 1. gloom is undifferentiated-conscious- 
ness, the thought of self in what are non-selves, in the un- 
phenomenalized [primary matter] or in the Great [thinking- 
substance] or in the personality-substance or in the five sub- 
stances. 2. Infatuation is the identification with atomization or 
some other of the eight powers so that one thinks 'I am ato- 
mic [or] I am of great size.' 3. Great infatuation is passion 
for sounds or other of the ten [perceptible] objects in so far 
as there is this distinction between what is super-normal and 
what is not-super-normal. 4. Darkness is hatred towards the 
eighteen obstructions, in case there is failure to gain the ten 
objects which are the causes of these [powers], if for any cause 
there be obstruction to the [ten] powers. 5. Blind darkness 
is the fear of the destruction of these same eighteen things 
desired. And in this sense the Samkhya Karika [xlviii] "The 
distinctions of gloom are eightfold and also those of infatuation; 

38 James Haugliton Woods, 

great infatuation is tenfold; darkness is eighteenfold and so is 
blind darkness." 

And these hindrances are of two kinds. The subtile which 
consist of subliminal-impressions burned by the discernment of 
the Self; the coarse, attenuated by the yoga of action and by 
the purification which consists in the cultivation of friendliness 
and so on [i. 33]. Of these [two], he describes the method of 
rejecting the subtile [hindrances]. 

10. These [hindrances when they are subtile] are to he rejected 

by inverse propagation. 

The mind-stuff having performed its task is dissolved into 
the feeling-of-personality, its own evolving- cause. < These > 
hindrances <are to be rejected> by <inverse propagations 
In other words as a result of the destruction of the whole 
there is a destruction of the external-aspects of this [whole]. 

He describes the means of rejecting the coarse [hindrances]. 

11. The fluctuations of these should he rejected by means of 


Those fluctuations of the hindrances, which are coarse, 
thinned by the yoga of action, being pleasure and pain and 
infatuation are to be rejected only by contemplation. Just as 
in ordinary life a spot of very coarse matter upon a piece of 
cloth is first cleansed by washing. Afterwards it is thinned 
by contact with alkali on something of the kind. But the 
latent-impression of the spot is destroyed only by the destruc- 
tion of the piece of cloth. Similarly extremely dense hindrances 
become thinned by the yoga of action. But when thinned, 
they are attenuated by contemplation. Yet subtile [hindrances] 
are destroyed only by the destruction of the mind-stuff. This 
is the point. 

After the hindrances have been discrused, the objector asks 
'How is it that they are hindrances?' In reply he says they 
are called hindrances because they are bonds, in so far as 
they are the root of karma and of its effects. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 39 

12. The latent-deposit of karma has its root in the hindrances 
and may be felt either in a birth seen or in a birth unseen. 

In this [sutra], by the three words in order, the cause and the 
nature and the effect of karma are described. That in which all 
Selves in the round-of-rebirth are latent is a latent-deposit of 
karmas, a subliminal-impression consisting of right and wrong- 
action. Because the root of it is the hindrances, love and anger 
and the rest, it is said to <have its root in the hindrances.> And 
it is of two kinds <to be felt in a birth seen and to be felt in a 
birth not seen.> And the first [kind] is to be experienced in the 
very same body by which the karma was made (ltrta) ; this is 
the birth seen. Just as Nandlgvara, when only a lad, with a 
human body offered adoration to the Igvara with keen inten- 
sity both by incantations and self - castigation and concentra- 
tion, and instantly gained birth as a divinity and a long length- 
of-life and supernormal experiences. Likewise Vishvamitra 
gained the birth and the length-of-life. In like manner con- 
tempt shown to illustrious personages who have remained 
worthy of trust in the terrible calamities which they have 
undergone is instantly rewarded. Just a9 Nahusa because of 
contempt shown to the great sage [Agastya] instantly became 
a serpent. The second [kind], however, is the <latent-deposit 
of karma > which is the cause of heaven or hell or whatever 
it may be to be experienced in another birth. 

This [latent- deposit of karma] does not occur when the 
hindrances have dwindled away. He describes this distinction. 

13. So long as the root exists, there will be fruition from it, 
birth and length-of-life and kind-of-experience. 

So long as <the root> which consists in the hindrances 
exists, there is <fruition> [that is] a result from the karma. 
For a man who has no hindrance does not enjoy. Since one 
who has no passion has no sensation of pleasure in any result 
arising in karma. For one who is not dejected does not lament. 
Therefore the seed of karma in hindrances burned by the fire 
of discriminative discernment, like rice which has no husk, does 
not generate a fruit. This fruition is of three kinds. < Birth > 
is being born as a divinity or as something or other; <length- 
of-life> is connected with the body and the breath for a long 

40 James HaugMon Woods, 

time; <kind-of-experience> is the enjoyment of objects of sense 
by sense organs. Of these [three], kind-of- experience is prim- 
ary; birth and length-of-life are supplementary to it. Because 
in this one body one feels different kinds-of-experience, many 
karmas bring the time of death to the full realization and 
originate a single birth. So the latent-deposit of karma is 
said to be one which has [its limit] in one existence. This is 
to be understood as having a multiplicity of results, in one 
case as birth, in another as length-of-life, in another as kind- 
of-experience; in another as two [of these], in another as three 
of these. This is said by the Exalted [Bhag. Git. iv. 17] 'Myst- 
erious are the ways of karma.' The details way he looked 
up in the Comment. 

In order now to indicate that birth and the others are to 
be rejected, he describes their result. 

14. These [fruitions] have joy or extreme anguish as results in 
accordance with the quality of their causes whether merit or 


< These > [that is] birth and length-of-life and kind-of- 
experience. Those that have a meritorious cause result in 
pleasure. Demerit is evil; those [fruitions] that have this as 
a cause result in pain. But [Vacaspati-]micra says 1 that the 
kind-of-experience is the feeling of pleasure or pain; pleasure 
and pain are the results of that [kind of experience] because 
this [kind of experience] is a kind of action, 2 just as the village 
is [the result] of walking. So he says. 

The objector says 'Suppose that these [karmas] which result 
in pain are to be rejected; but how is it that those which 
result in pleasure are to be rejected.' In reply to this he says. 

15. By reason of the pains due to mutations, to anxiety, and 

to subliminal-impressions, and by reason of the opposition of the 

fluctuations of the aspects, to the discriminating all is pain. 

<Mutation> is a change of state. <Anxiety> is present. 
<Subliminal-impressions> are past. These same are pains; by 

i See iii. 35, p. 245 >* and compare bhogah sukhaduhkha-sdksatkdrah 
ii. 13, p. 1268 (Cale. ed.). 

2 That is, it is something to be accomplished not something ready-made. 

Toga-sutras with Maniprabha. 41 

reason of these. This is the analysis [of the compound]. To 
explain. The fire of passion increases as a result of the enjoy- 
ment of the pleasure in objects. In case it increases, when a 
man does not get what he desires, pain necessarily will come. 
There is aversion towards that which lessens [enjoyment]. As 
a result of this, because there is an increase of evil due to 
passion and aversion, there is pain. And if [enjoyment] does 
not lessen, there is disease and also evil. From this there is 
pain. Thus enjoyment has the painfulness of mutations. So 
at the time of the enjoyment of pleasure there is pain because 
of the fear of the loss of the objects. And as a result of 
the hatred for the destroyer there is anxiety. Thus enjoy- 
ment has the painfulness of anxiety. In this way when the 
enjoyment of pleasure is destroyed there is a subliminal-im- 
pression. In so far as there is this memory, when there is pas- 
sion, because of the accumulation of merit and demerit, there 
is the experience of pleasure and of pain, there is a subliminal- 
impression again. Thus the uninterrupted-succession of pain is 
endless. If there were no subliminal-impression when enjoy- 
ment is destroyed, then there would be no uninterrupted- 
succession of pain. But because there is the subliminal-im- 
pression there is the painfulness of the subliminal-impression. 
These pains deject the discriminating yogin who is [sensitive] 
as the eye-ball; but not [ordinary people] busy in action, whose 
mind-stuffs are hard. Just as even a thread of wool of deli- 
cate structure dejects the eye-ball, but not any other part of 
the body. Accordingly to the discriminating every means of 
enjoyment without exception, like food mixed with poison, is 
surely pain by connection with < pains due to mutations, to 
anxiety, and to subliminal-impressions > <and by reason of the 
opposition of the fluctuations of the aspects.> In other words, 
there is opposition [that is] the reciprocal relation of causing 
and of being made to disappear, in the case of the fluctuations, 
pleasure and pain and infatuation, which belong to the aspects, 
sattva and rajas and tamas, which are mutated as mind-stuff. 
Because of this. For the mind-stuff is unstable. Whatever 
fluctuation of the aspects there is in this mind-stuff which 
appears when right-living becomes intensified, this same, be- 
cause wrong-living is intensified, when once right-living has 
appeared, disappears again. The fluctuation of pleasure, which 
really by its very nature partakes of pain, manifests its natur- 

42 James Haughton Woods, 

ally painful nature, because it is a mutation of sattva mixed 
with rajas, the nature of which is pain. But in its own time 
[of being experience], the painfulness of this [fluctuation of 
pleasure] is not clear, because, at that time, the sattva [aspect] 
is predominant. [But when] the sattva [aspect] disappears by 
reason of the rajas, then it becomes clear. Thus it is that 
pleasure and pain are differently named. In this way the fact 
that pleasure infatuates is explained. Consequently it is pro- 
ved that the whole world, in essence a mutation of aspects, 
is to be rejected as having in its essence an infatuation as 
to pain. 

Just as in a book of medicine there are four divisions ]. Dis- 
ease 2. Cause of the disease 3. Health 4. Cause of this [Health], 
so in this book too he shows that what is to be rejected is 
to be particularized and divided into four 1. What is to be 
B-ejected 2. Cause of what is to be Rejected 3. Release 4. Cause 
of this [Release]. 

16. That ivhich is to be rejected is pain yet to come. 

Because past pain has passed away in experience and be- 
cause present pain is dwindling in the very experience itself, 
it is <pain yet to come> that <is to be rejected.> 

He describes the cause of the rejection. 

17. The cause of that which is to be rejected is the correlation 
of the Seer and the object-for-sight. 

The <Seer> consisting in intelligence is the Self who has 
a vision which is his own image lying on the thinking-substance. 
The <object-for-sight> is the sattva of the thinking- substance. 
The <correlation> is the relation of property and proprietor. 
Eor the sattva of the thinking-substance, mutated into the 
form of the various sounds and other [perceptible] substances, 
by the agency of the organs or in some other way, by chang- 
ing into the image of the intelligence is seen as not different 
from the Self; giving its aid like a loadstone merely by being 
near and making the Self look towards the experience and 
the liberation which abide within him, it becomes the property 
of the Self the proprietor. This same is the correlation, formed 
by the the undifferentiated-consciousness which consists in the 

Toga-sutras with Maniprabha. 43 

the error which does not [see] the difference; and, constantly 
subject to the ends of the Self, is the cause of the pain which 
is to be rejected. 

He amplifies [the description] of the object-for-sight. 

18. The object-for-sight with its disjiosition to light and to 
activity and to inertia, consisting of elements and organs, 
exists for the purpose of the experience and of the liberation 

[of the Self]. 
The sattva has the disposition to light. The rajas has the 
disposition to activity. Inertia is an impediment to light and 
to activity; the tamas has this disposition. Thus while there 
is relation of castigated and castigator between the sattva and 
the rajas, infatuation is found in the Self because he looks 
upon them as belonging to him (mamataya). These same three 
aspects, cooperating with their own effects of this kind or 
that, undiscriminated, objects-of-experience, to be put aside by 
the discriminating, causing each other to disappear, in the 
relation of whole and part to each other, having differences 
knowable by characteristic effects of pleasure and light and 
lightness and of pain and activity and incitement and of in- 
fatuation and obstructien and heaviness, with the difference 
between them hard to know inasmuch as they are not separated 
from each other, denoted by the word primary cause, — [these 
aspects] < consist of elements and organs. > The elements are 
the coarser fine substances; the organs are the ten organs of 
perception and of action, the thinking-substance and the per- 
sonality-substance and the central-organ, which are the three 
inner organs. This is the object-for-sight, the mutation of 
which consists of, [that is] is not different from, [elements and 
organs]. It is <for the purpose of the experience and the libera- 
tion [of the Self]> [that is] its purpore is experience and release. 

He shows what the mutation of these aspects is when one 
separates them. 

19. The divisions of the aspects are the particularized and the 
unparticularized [forms] and resoluble [-primary matter] and 

unresoluble [primary matter]. 
Sixteen evolved-forms are <particularized> in the sense that 
they are made particular [that is] singled out. Five coarse 

44 James Haughton Woods, 

elements, air and wind and fire and water and earth, ten 
organs of sense and of action, and the central-organ — these 
sixteen are evolved-forms only and not evolving-causes of other 
entities. The evolving-causes of these evolved-forms are evolved- 
forms of the thinking-substance, the six unparticularized, the 
five fine substances and the personality substance. According 
to the Samkhya the five fine-substances are from the personality- 
substance. According to the Yoga the fine substances are off- 
spring of the thinking-substance produced after the personality- 
substance. Of these the five fine-substances, sound and touch and 
color and taste and smell as they are called, are the evolving- 
causes of the coarse elements. The personality-substance, in both 
aspects of the sattva and the rajas, is the evolving- cause of the 
organ of sense and of action of the central-organ. The Great 
Entity is a fine-substance and it is < resoluble > in the sense 
that it is reduced to a resolution [into primary matter]. And 
the word matra makes clear its characteristic-difference from 
the particularized and the unparticularized. For it is in 
essence unpredicated determinations and it is the first effect 
of the primary- cause which consists in the state of equipoise. 
The four divisions of the aspects are mutations. It is to be 
supposed that the aspects are supplementary to the intelligence. 

Thus having discussed the object-for-sight he discusses the 

20. The Seer, who is seeing and nothing more, although undefiled 
[by aspects], looks upon the presented-idea. 

<The Seer> is the Self. <Who is seeing and nothing more> 
[that is] who is intelligence and nothing more, not having pro- 
perties such as perception. Accordingly, although <undefiled> 
[that is] immutable, he beholds the presented -idea in con- 
formity with a fluctuation of the thinking-substance. Thus he 
<looks upon the presented-idea.> In other words as a result 
of not discriminating the thinking-substance from himself, by 
becoming one with the fluctuations he looks upon the sounds 
and other [perceptible] things. This has been said [i. 4] At 
other times it takes the same form as the fluctuations [of 

Having thus described the object-for-sight and the Seer he 
tells which is subordinate and which is principal. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 45 

21. The being of the object-for-sight exists only for the sake of 

it [the Self]. 

The nature of the <object-for-sight> [that is] the object of 
experience is only for the sake of the Seer, not for its own 
sake, because it is unintelligent. 

The objector says 'Then, when once the purpose of the Seer 
is completed, because it would have nothing to do, the primary- 
cause would not be an object-for-sight; it would be without 
functional activity; and so no world-of-change would now be 
apperecived.' In reply to this he says 

22. Though it has ceased [to be seen] in the case of one whose 

purpose is fulfilled, it has not ceased to be, since it is common 

to others besides him. 

The primary-cause is one; the Selves are endless [in number]. 
This is the settled rule, in accordance with the passage of the 
Sacred Word [Qvet. Up. iv. 5] 'The one she-goat.' In this case 
that Self with reference to whom the primary-cause has ful- 
filled its experience and liberation is <one whose purpose is 
fulfilled> because he is master, just as a master is said to 
have won a victory by a victory which has been won by a 
servant. Similarly, with reference to that Self who has ac- 
complished his purpose and is free, this object-for-sight, al- 
though it has ceased to be [that is] reduced to non-sight, still 
it has not ceased to be, because it is common to other Selves. 
What he means to say is this. Because the purpose of the 
Self has stages yet to come, it is the cause of activity on the 
part of the primary-cause. In this case, although the primary- 
cause is not active with reference to [a Self] who has fulfilled 
its purpose, with reference to one whose purpose is not fulfilled, 
in the form of the Great [thinking substance] and the rest, 
activity does take place. And so if one [Self] has freedom, 
it does not follow that all have freedom. 

Thus having explained the object-for-sight and the Seer he 
discusses the cause of what is to be rejected [that is] the 

46 James Haughton Woods, 

23. The cause of the recognition of the nature of the poiver of 

the property and of the proprietor is the correlation. 

The <property> is the object-for- sight; its <power,> inasmuch 
as it is inert, is its capacity for being seen. But the ^pro- 
prietor is the Self; his power, inasmuch as he is intelligent, 
is his capacity as Seer, which merely consists in being himself. 
These two powers, whose nature is that they should be pro- 
perty and proprietor, have experience, that is to say, a recogni- 
tion of the peculiar nature of the thinking-substance as the 
object-for-sight in the form of various sounds and other [per- 
ceptible] things. The recognition of the peculiar nature of the 
proprietor is liberation. The cause of this [recognition] is the 
<correlation> the so-called relation of property and proprietor. 
The same is called the relation of Seer and object-for-sight 
[and] the relation of experiencer and object -of- experience. 
When this is not, there is no recognition of the nature of the 
Seer and the object-for-sight; when it is, there is this [recogni- 
tion]. This correlation is knowable only in [its] effect. This 
is pointed out. 

Having thus described the nature and the effect of the cor- 
relation he tells of its cause. 

24. The cause of it is undifferentiated-consciousness (avidya). 

In other words the cause of the correlation is a subconscions- 
impression from erroneous knowledge. When any one thinks 
T the presented idea which does not distinguish between the 
Seer and the object-for-sight is an error. A mind-stuff per- 
meated (vasita) by subconscions-impressions of this [error] is 
resolved at a dissolution and passes over into the condition 
of the primary-cause; at the time of a creation, in the case 
of each Self, it comes forth as the sattva aspect only. By 
means of this correlation there is bondage for the undiscriminat- 
ing and release for the discriminating. For [they are] together 
with that undifferentiated-consciousness, in the mind-stuff, which 
is diversified with subconscious-impressions from time without 
beginning. Upon the human victim » perforated like a fish-net 
and rejecting the pain received, which has been applied by 
his own karma, and receiving [the pain] rejected, who conforms 

' This simile is derived from the Bhasya on ii. 13 and 15. 

Toga-sutras with Alaniprabha. 47 

himself to the idea 'I' and to the idea 'mine', — upon him, born 
again and again, the triple anguishes, from both kind of causes 
both inner and outer, sweep down. 

Having thus shown the consistency between, that which is 
to be rejected and its cause, he traces the derivation of the 
release, which is the rejection of that which is to be 

25. Because this [undifferentiated-consciousness] does not exist, 
there is no correlation; this is the rejection, the Isolation of 

the Seer. 

Because this [undifferentiated-consciousness] does not exist, 
after it has been destroyed by consciousness, the cause, the 
pain to be rejected, which is the correlation of the thinking- 
substance and the Self, does not exist [that is] is quite destroyed. 
This <Isolation> of the <Seer> [that is] of the permanently 
freed is itself the rejection. 

After describing freedom he tells of its cause. 

26. The method of the rejection is unwavering discriminating 


The <discernment> is the sense of <discriminating> [that is] 
distinguishing between the Seer and the object - for - sight. 
Wavering is false sensation. In the first place we know that 
discriminating insight arises in a general way from verbal- 
communication. This does not put an end to undifferentiated- 
consciousness, which is from time without beginning, because 
there is no immediate experience. But when it is established 
by reasoning and is incessantly practised by a mind-stuff free 
from passion and directed towards the Self, then springing 
from the final perfection of contemplation and containing the 
reflection of the intelligence and consisting of immediate ex- 
perience, it utterly destroys false sensation together with the 
subconscious-impressions. Being now <un wavering > by reason 
of the restriction which follows the higher passionlessness, it 
is [now] the method of release which is nothing but subliminal- 
impressions and which has performed its task, when once its 
end has begun, by virtue of the final cessation; and this is the 
rejection of future pain. 

48 James Haughton Woods, 

He tells of the greatness due to knowledge in the case of 
one freed while living, whose discriminating discernment is 

27. For him insight advancing in stages to the highest is 


Those are advancing to the highest [that is] are in the final 
(carama) [stage], whose highest, [that is] whose end, is excellent 
as a result. That insight whose stage, [that is] whose state, 
has advanced to the highest is <advancing in stages to the 
highest. > Following after the wise man's steady and unwaver- 
ing discernment of himself, in so far as other presented-ideas 
have disappeared, there are seven kinds, [that is] seven stages, 
that are final. 1. All that is to be known is known. Other 
than this there is nothing to be known. This is one [insight]. 
Because it destroys all desire to know, this insight has ad- 
vanced to the highest. For this l insight is impossible in one 
who does not known himself, because, as a result of this, al- 
though the insight, which terminates in the primary-cause, is 
established by the concentration which is based upon this, yet 
in so far as the desire to know the self persists (sattvena) the 
insight of this [persisting desire] is not final. Thus the last 
states are to be regarded as advancing in stages to the highest. 
2. All the causes of bondage which were to be rejected have 
been rejected, there is nothing to be rejected by me. This is 
the second [insight]. 3. By the attainment of Isolation all that 
was to be attained has been attained; other than this there is 
nothing to be attained by me. This is the third [insight]. 
4. By the accomplishment of discriminative discernment all 
that was to be done has been done; there is nothing to be 
done. This is the fourth [insight]. These four are the so- 
called final releases of action. — The so-called final releases of 
the mind-stuff are three. That is to say, 5. the sattva of my 
thinking-substance has performed its task. This is one [in- 
sight]. 6. The aspects (guna) also, in the form of the thinking- 
substance and the rest, like rocks fallen from the top of the 
mountain peak, without support, of their own accord, incline 
towards dissolution in their fall and come to final rest; lack- 
ing a motive they do not spring up again. This is the second 

1 Reading it/am anatmajnasya. 

Toga-sutras with Maniprabha. 49 

{insight of the released mind-stuff]. 7. Similarly one who has 
passed beyond the aspects (guna) and who remains in himself 
and nothing more and whose sole essence is intelligence — this 
would be the third state of insight of the released mind-stuff. 
In other words the seven stages of insight advancing to the 
highest should be regarded as having as their results 1. the 
desire to know 2. the desire to reject 3. the desire to attain 
4. the desire to act 5. the end of grief 6. the end of fear 7. the 
end of predicate-relations. 

Now he tells of the means of attaining insight. 

28. After the dwindling of impurity as a result of following up 
the aids to yoga, there is an illumination of thinking, up to the 

discriminative discernment. 

As a result of following up the aids to yoga and also yoga 
[itself], when there is a dwindling of impurity consisting in the 
karma from hindrances, there is an illumination [that is] a 
purification of thinking, up to the unpredicated discriminative 
discernment. The point is that the means of attaining in- 
sight is by the purity due to following up of yoga together 
with its aids. 

How many are the aids to yoga? In reply he says. 

29. The eight aids are abstentions and observances and postures 
and regulations of breath and withdrawal of the senses and 

fixed-attention and contemplation and concentration. 

Abstentions are mentioned first because they have results 
in connection with the others. Afterwards in respect of the 
abstentions come the observances. As being concerned with 
the purity which depends upon both these two kinds, the 
postures and the others, each the cause of the next, are after- 
words mentioned. 

He describes in particular these [aids] which are to be ac- 
cepted by yogins. 

30. Abstentions are abstinence from injury, from falsehood, 
from theft, from incontinence, and from acceptance of gifts. 

Of these, 1. abstinence from injury is of course abstinence 
from oppression by mind or voice or body of any creature at 

4 JAOS 34. 

50 James Haughton Woods, 

any time. This right-living is of the best white [karma]. The 
rest beginning with the observances are for the purpose of 
purifying this. And in this sense it has been said 'Surely this 
same brahmin in proportion as he desires to take upon him- 
self many courses of action, in this proportion refraining from 
heedlessly giving injuries, fulfills [the abstention] of abstinence 
from injury in the full character of its spotlessness.' 2. Truth 
is the telling of the facts as they are, for the good of others. 
3. Theft is taking the possessions of others by force or by 
stealth; when there is none of this, there is abstinence from 
theft, the absence of desire for the wealth of another. 4. Ab- 
stinence from incontinence is the constraint of the organ of 
generation. The renunciation of gazing at women and of 
talking with them or of touching them or of listening to them 
or of meditating upon them is an aid to this. 5. Abstinence 
from property is the non-acceptance of the means of enjoyment 
over and above the nourishment of the body. These five ab- 
stentions have a share in aiding, in so far as they reject in- 
jury and lying and stealing and contact with women and 
property which are foes to yoga. 

31. The Great Course of conduct is [abstinence from injury] 
unqualified by species or place or time or exigency and [covering] 
all [these] classes. 
A < species > such as the class of cows or of brahmins. 
A <place> such as some sacred-spot. A <time> such as the 
fourteenth day which has been determined upon. An <exigency> 
would be, for instance, some such time as a brahmanic eating 
which has not been settled. In these cases the resolution never 
to kill a cow or a brahmin would be abstinence from injury 
as limited by species. The resolution not to kill any one at 
a sacred place or on the fourteenth day would be [abstinence 
from injury] limited by place and by time. The resolution not 
to kill excepting, at the unfixed-time (samaya) of eating, for 
the sake of gods and brahmins would be [abstinence from in- 
jury] limited by an unfixed-time. The resolution to kill no 
animal whatsoever at any time for any body's sake would be 
abstinence from killing undetermined by all four, species and 
the rest. Abstinence from injury has many varieties. In the 
same way one should consider truth and the rest as being 

Yoga-sntras with Maniprabha. 51 

He describes the observances. 

32. The observances are cleanlines and contentment and self- 

castigation and study and devotion to the Icvara. 
< Cleanliness > accomplished by earth or water or the like 
and by sacrifical food purified by cow's urine or fire or some- 
thing of the kind is outer. Inner cleanliness is the absence 
in the mind-stuff of taints such as jealousy because of the 
cultivation of friendliness and the rest [i. 33]. < Contentment> 
is happness caused by nothing more than the sustenance of 
the present life. <Self-castigation> is the bearing of extremes 
according to circumstances and mortifications and the like. 
<Study> is practice of the Mystic Syllable and of similar 
[exercises]. "Whatever I do, whether auspicious or inauspici- 
ous, whether consciously or unconsciously, all is committed to 
Thee. Moved by Thee I do [it all]. Whatever my movement 
be at any time in act or mind or speech let it be as an ad- 
oration of Kegava and also in birth after birth yet to come." 
Thus devotion to the Icvara is the offerring up of all actions 
to the Supreme Teacher. 

33. If there be inhibition by perverse considerations, there should 

be cultivation of the opposites. 

When it happens that there is inhibition of these absten- 
tions and observances by resolutions to kill [qualified] by per- 
verse considerations such as 'I will kill him who hurts [me]; 
I will also He; I will take other's property,' a brahmin intent 
upon abstentions and the other [aids] should cultivate [in his 
mind] the opposites. 'Baked upon the pitiless coals of the 
round- of-rebirths I take refuge in the duties of yoga, such as 
the abstentions, by giving protection to every living creature. 
If now, giving up abstinence from injury and the rest, I be- 
take myself to those [abstentions] already given up, then I shall 
[he doing something] like the doings of a dog. For just as a 
dog eats that which is vomited so I shall be taking again that 
which I have given up.' Thus he should cultivate the oppo- 
sites of the perverse considerations. 

At this point describing in sucession in the five words the 
'nature', the 'varieties', the 'causes', the 'different subdivisions', 
and the 'results' of the perverse considerations, he makes clear 
what the cultivation of the opposites is. 

52 James Haughton Woods, 

34. Because perverse considerations, such as injuries, whether 
done or caused to be done or approved, whether ensuing upon 
greed or anger or infatuation, whether mild or moderate or 
vehement, find their unending fruition in pain and in lack of 
thinking, — there should be a cultivation of their opposites. 

Perverse considerations, such as injuries, are so called be- 
cause they are considered. This describes their nature. Of 
these injuries there are three kinds 1. done voluntarily 2. caused 
to be done, because some one has said 'do it' and 3. approved, 
as when one says 'good, good'. Of these [three], each one is 
again three-fold, due to difference of cause 1. by greed, as for 
meat or for a skin 2. by anger, as -when one thinks he is hurt 
by a man 3. by infatuation, as when one thinks 'I shall be 
doing a meritorious act.' Thus there are nine kinds of injuries. 
Once more greed and anger and infatuation are each of three 
kinds; and injury and the rest, as being caused by these, in 
so far as they are mild or moderate or vehement, are also mild 
or moderate or vehement and likewise are done or caused to 
be done or approved. Thus since each of the injuries and the 
rest are nine-fold, there are twenty-seven varieties. And, as 
being mild or moderate or vehement, each one [of there] is 
three-fold: mildly mild, moderately mild, keenly mild, mildly 
moderate, moderately moderate, keenly moderate, mildly keen, 
moderately keen, keenly keen. In this way greed is of nine 
kinds. Likewise anger and infatuation. Caused by these 
[nine kinds], injuries when done are of twenty-seven varieties. 
Similary when caused to be done or approved; thus there are 
eighty- one varieties of injuries. In the same way, this is applic- 
able to lying and to the rest. Perverse considerations are of 
such a nature. Pain, for example, that of hell, and lack of 
thinking, for example, the state of motionless things and the 
state consisting of error and doubt, give endless results. Ac- 
cordingly it is clear that there must be cultivation of the 
opposites without any perverse considerations. What is poin- 
ted out is this: Perverse considerations are to be rejected as 
being this calculation of hatred. When they are rejected, the 
ten abstentions and observances are perfected without obstruc- 
tion. When these are [in turn] perfected, there is Isolation by 
virtue of the mind-stuff's purity. The upshot of it all is that 
after this yoga is perfected. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 53 

Now he shows in order the subordinate results of the ten 
[abstentions and observances] which are the indications of their 

35. As soon as he is grounded in abstinence from injury, his 

presence begets a suspension of enmity. 

When abstinence from injury is perfected, even the snake 
and mongoose, enemies by nature, suspend their enmity in 
the presence of the best of silent sages who abstains from 

36. As soon as he is grounded hi abstinence from falsehood, 

actions and results depend upon him. 

<As soon as he is grounded in abstinence from falsehoods 
actions both of right-living and wrong-living and the results 
of these, for example, heaven, both abide [in him]. He is one 
who gives them merely by uttering a word. This is his state 
or condition. Just as a man becomes right-living in response 
to this saying 'Be thou right-living,' [and just as a man attains 
heaven] merely because he says 'Attain thou heaven,' so also 
he becomes wrong-living. 

37. As soon as he is grounded in abstinence from theft, all lands 

of jewels approach him. 

When he is established in abstinence from stealing, he ob- 
tains possession by a mere wish of all kinds of supernormal 

38. As soon as he is grounded in abstinence from incontinence 

he acquires vigor. 

For abstinence from incontinence is a restriction of vigor; 
when this is perfected his power becomes unsurpassed. As a 
result of which, atomization and the other [powers] present 
themselves. His teaching bears fruit in his pupils instantly. 1 

39. As soon as he is grounded in abstinence from property, 

illumination upon the conditions of birth. 

When one who is disposed to abstain from property, is 
steady in this [abstinence], he has a thorough illumination, 

1 Reading gisyesupadegah. 

54 James Haughton Woods, 

caused by his desire to know, of the conditions [that is] the 
different kinds of past, present, and future births. In what does 
this consist? In the desire to know the body which is opposed 
to property, in that one asks what its modes are, what its 
causes are, what its results are, what its end is. Then [there 
is illumination as to] the connection of effect and cause, the 
birth of the Self who is [really] unborn; the different kinds of 
men and gods and animals, that there are caused by karma 
from hindrances, that they have pain only as their fruit; that 
the end is the illumination as to the real nature of the Self. 
Thus having come to this conclusion from the verbal-com- 
munication of the master, he is freed from the body and ex- 
periences the highest degree of abstinence from property. 

The perfections of the abstentions have been described ; the 
perfections of the observances are now described. 

40. As a result of cleanliness there is a disgust at one's own 

body and absence of intercourse with others. 

One who is perfected in outer cleanliness does not see [any] 
purity in his own body and is disgusted at it. This body is 
essentially impure; no pride should be taken in it. One who 
sees its defects — so that he thinks 'I who am intent on purity 
have a body that does not become pure, how much more the 
body of another intoxicated [by the round of rebirths]' — has 
no intercourse with others' bodies. 

Thus having described the perfection of outer cleanliness, 
the tells of the perfection of inner cleanliness. 

41. Purity of sattva, gentleness, singleness-oj -intent, subjuga- 
tion of the senses, and predisposition for the seeing of the Self 

The words [ii. 40] <as a result of cleanliness> are to be 
continued. And the words 'there is' are to be supplied. Pur- 
ity of the sattva of the thinking-substance is the fading out 
of such taints as jealousy, the taints of rajas and tamas. 
After this there is an effulgence of the sattva. Consequently 
there is steadiness. And from this comes subjugation of the 
outer senses. As a result of this, there follows fitness for the 
discernment of the Self. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 55 

42. As a result of contentment there is the acquisition of super- 

lative pleasure. 

AVhen there is perfection 1 in the dwindling away of desire, 
he who has ridden himself of appetite necessarily gains an 
experience of an incomparable pleasure due to the effulgence 
of his purified sattva. And in this sense in the Song of 
Yayati in the 2 Mahabharata "The pleasures of appetite in 
ordinary life and the supreme supernormal pleasure are both 
not to be compared with a sixteenth part of the pleasure of 
dwindled desire." 

43. From self-castigation, as a result of the dwindling of im- 
purity, there arises perfection in the organs of the body. 

After the evil from hindrances has dwindled by reason of 
one's own right-living or of mortifications and lunar fasts or 
something of the kind, there arises a perfection of the body, 
a perfection of the organs in grasping objects that are distant 
or subtile. 

44. As a result of study there is communion ivith the chosen 


As a result of repetition of the chosen incantation or of 
something of the kind, conversation and the like are perfected 
with one's own chosen divinity. 

45. As a result of devotion to the Icvara arises the perfection 

of concentration. 

Only by devotion of all one's inner being is there perfection 
of yoga. And one should not say that if this is so, the seven 
aids which begin with the abstentions are useless. Because 
it is conceded that there is a choice whether there be a per- 
fection of yoga by the aids or by the devotion. This was said 
[i. 23] "Or by devotion to the Icvara." Nor [should one say] 
that the aids are fruitless as regards devotion. Because it is 
possible that the abstentions and the rest would aid the devo- 
tion also. There is nothing contradictory in saying that these 
[aids] are useful in both ways, both for devotion and for yoga, 

1 Reading siddhan. 

2 In the Patanjala-Rahasyam this passage is attributed to the Vishnu 

56 James Haughton Woods, 

just as curds are an aid in both ways, both [to invigorate] the 
organs [of man] and also for sacrifice. And you should also 
not say '"What is the use of devotion, if eight aids are neces- 
sary, for they themselves would give the perfection.' Perfec- 
tion of yoga is remote, if your means-of-approach lack faith; 
perfection of yoga is very near, if [your means-of-approach] 
shower down the nectar of devotion. Thus the choice [between 
devotion and the eight aids] can be properly explained because 
they are both methods-of-attaining the results, which are yoga 
at a distant time and yoga directly (acira). This devotion to 
the Icvara, moreover, has a different object from the yoga of 
the inner self. So it is proper to speak of it as an external 
aid. Thus there is no flaw [in the argument]. 

Having thus discussed abstentions and observances together 
with the perfections, he tells what the nature of posture is. 

46. Posture should be steady and easy. 

The meaning is that the posture which is motionless and 
which confers case is an aid to yoga. A posture in the sense 
that one is posed. It is two-fold, external and bodily. Of 
these two, that is external such as is covered by a slab or a 
black antelope skin or by sacrificial grass; that is bodily such 
as the lotus or the mystic diagram. This is the distinction. 
Of these the lotus-posture is familiar enough. — One should 
put the left foot contracted between the left shin and thigh 
and the right between the left shin and thigh; this would be 
the mystic diagram. — Having made a hollow of the two soles 
of his feet near the scrotum, one should place the hollow of 
his hands above the hollow [of the soles of his feet]. This 
would he regarded as the decent-posture. 

He tells of the method of steadying the postures. 

47. By relaxation of effort or by a balanced-state with regard 

to Ananta. 

Instinctive effort, because it moves, destroys the posture. 
By the cessation of it the posture is perfected; so that there 
is no shaking of the limbs. By a balanced-state of the mind- 
stuff <with regard to Ananta> [that is] upon the Chief of 
Serpents, who holds the globe of the world upon his thous- 

Toga-sutras with Maniprabha. 57 

and very steadfast hoods, there is no throbbing of pain in the 
posture in so far as there is no consciousness of the body. 

He tells of a characteristic of perfection in this [posture]. 

48. Thereafter he is unassailed by extremes. 

After the subjugation of the postures one is not beaten by 
cold or heat or by other [extremes]. 

He now tells of the restraint of breath to be effected by 
the postures. 

49. This done, restraint of the breath, the cutting off of the 

flow of inspiration and expiration [follows]. 

When there is steadiness of posture, restraint of the breath 
is the inner and outer cutting off of the flow of the external 
and the abdominal winds. 

Having described the general characteristic [of restraint of 
breath] he analyzes restraint of breath as the thing to be 

50. External, internal, or suppressed in fluctuation ; appearing 

in place, time, and number; spun-out and subtile. 

Restraint of the breath is of four kinds, external in fluctua- 
tion, internal in fluctuation, suppressed in fluctuation, and the 
fourth. Of these, the retention, outside only, of the abdominal 
wind which has gone out by reason of an emission, is < ex- 
ternal in fluctuation and it is an emission (recaka). By a 
filling in of outer wind, the holding within of [the air] which 
has gone within is <internal> in fluctuation and it is an in- 
halation (piiraka). The cutting off of the flow by an effort 
which is nothing other than a retention of the breath without 
an effort of emission or of inhalation is <suppressed> in fluctua- 
tion and it is suspension (kumbhaka). This is not an emission 
because it remains within. Nor is it an inhalation because it 
is subtile in that it contracts the breath in the body like a 
drop of water put on the surface of a boiling-hot stone. For 
an inhalation is [a breathing], that in coarse and restricted 
within, which fills the body, Therefore without any practice 
in emission or inhalation, by a single effort and no more, the 

58 James Hauyhton Woods, 

subtile breath called suspension, in so far as it is motionless 
like water in a jar, because it remains in the body is proven 
to be a suspension, a third [restraint of breath]. This muta- 
tion is three-fold, appearing as spun-out and subtile in place, 
time, and number. With regard to these, the <place> [that 
is] the object of the emission is measured by a span, a vitasti 
[from extended thumb to tip of little finger], or a hand or 
something similar; and is inferred, from the motion in a 
windless place of a blade of grass or of cotton, as being ex- 
ternal. The place of inhalation, however, is internal and is 
inferred by means of touch, which resembles the touch of ants 
[moving on the body]; it extend from the sole of the foot to 
the head. <Time> is to be known by counting moments. 
< Number > is to be known by counting matra. A matra is 
that time which is distinguished by a snap of the fingers after 
having touched thrice with one's hand one's own knee. 1 This 
[matra] occupies the same time as the inspiration and expira- 
tion of a man in ordinary health. In this case it is evident that 
[the restraint] is spun-out by a series of practices of twenty-six 
matras [in length]. The restriction of breath is <spun-out> 
when a large amount of place or time is covered. Just as a 
clever man sees it is spun-out, so because the breath is evidently 
subtile the spun-out [restraint] itself appears to be subtile. 

He shows what the fourth restraint of breath is. 

51. The fourth [restraint oj breath] transcends the external and 
internal objects. 

The outer place [that is] object has been described. And 
the inner object is, for instance, the heart or the navel. The 
transcending of these two is the complete apprehension of 
these with the subtile sight. The first stage of this <fourth,> 
is the [restraint] suppressed in fluctuation. And one should 
not question whether this might be included under suspension 
(kumbhaka). Because of [this] difference in quality: that the 
suspension is only when there is no ascertainment of outer 
and inner objets which have been subjugated by the practice 
of emission and of inhalation and it [the suspension] is sup- 
pressed in fluctuation by a single effort only; [whereas] the 

' Or it may be that one should touch each knee and snap one's 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 59 

fourth is to be obtained after a deal of effort, and it is the 
suspended fluctuation that has as its antecedent the ascertain- 
ment of those [outer and inner objects]. 

Now he tells of the result which is the cause of its being 
regarded an aid to yoga. 

52. As a result of this the obscuration of light dwindles away. 

As a result of practice in restiaint of breath the covering, 
which consists in evil from hindrances, of the sattva, whose 
disposition is light, belonging to the thinking - substance, 
<dwindles away.> This is said by the omniscient Manu [vi. 72] 
"One should burn up defects by restraint of breath." 

53. The central-organ becomes fit for fixed-attentions also. 

Furthermore as a result of restraint of breath, when the 
obscuration dwindles away, the central-organ becomes fit for 
fixed-attentions upon subtile points. 

The mind-stuff which is purified with the abstentions and 
the rest which have been described withdraws its senses. After 
assuming this he gives the characteristic-mark of this [with- 

54. The withdrawal of the senses is as it were the imitation of 

the mind-stuff itself on the part of the organs, by disjoining 

themselves from their objects. 

When the pure mind-stuff is disjoined from its own objects, 
the sounds and other [perceptible] things, when, in other words, 
it is close to reality by having not joined itself to objects 
as a result of passionlessness, the organs, the eye and the 
others, imitate the nature of the mind-stuff [that is] they get 
close to reality by disjoining themselves from their objects. 
This is withdrawal of the organs. According to the deriva- 
tion of the word [the withdrawal of the organs] is that in 
which the organs are withdrawn (ahriyante) from the objects 
which are obstructive (pratilomyena). The words <as it were> 
are used to denote (dyotana) those organs whose power extends 
(gura) to objects are not close to reality, as is the mind-stuff. 
Just as when the king-bee mounts up the bees mount up after 
him and when he stands still they stand still after him, so the 

60 James Haughton Woods, 

organs in conformity with the mind-stuff are restricted merely 
by the restriction of the mind-stuff and not by any effort other 
than that. This is the import [of the sutra]. 

He tells of the result of the withdrawal of the senses which 
is the cause of yoga. 

55. As a result of this [withdrawal] there is complete mastery 

of the senses. 

[A man has] enjoyment at his will of objects which are 
not forbidden, without being dependent on them. Mastery of 
the senses is that knowledge of sounds and other [perceptible] 
things, in the absence of passion and aversion, which does not 
produce pleasure and pain. This [mastery] is not the highest 
because it is connected with the snake's poison (visa) of ob- 
jects (visaya). But the opinion of Jaiglsavya is this: That 
mastery which is the absolute refusal (apratipatti), on the 
part of the women, who are the organs to deal with objects, 
that is to say, the objects of sense, although [these latter] are 
being carried near to themselves [the objects] by the objects — 
[a refusal] because they are true to their husbands, who are 
the realities, — just as the Lady Sita did not accept Havana 
the basest of demons, although brought near to him — this is 
the higher mastery of the senses, the result of the withdrawal 
of the senses. 

Book third: Supernormal Powers. 

Having thus in the Second Book discussed the yoga of 
action as a means of attaining yoga by attenuation of the 
hindrances, and having told of the fruitions of the karma from 
the hindrances in detail, and having shown that pain is the 
reason for rejecting them, and having made that-which-is-to- 
be-rejected and its reasons harmonious with release and its 
reasons, he discussed the five outer aids of yoga, beginning 
with the abstentions, together with their subordinate results. 
Now while speaking of the three inner aids beginning with 
fixed-attention, [which together form] the so-called constraint, 
he will describe the supernormal powers to be attained 
by constraint as being causes, by means of belief, of 
putting that yoga into action which results in Isolation. So 

Yoga-sutras ivith Maniprabha. 61 

beginning the book which comes next he characterizes fixed- 

1. Fixed-attention (dharana) is the binding of the mind-stuff 

to a place. 

That binding [that is] steadying of the mind-stuff to a place, 
such as the navel or the heart or the tip of the nose, is fixed- 
attention. This is said in the Vishnu Purana [vi. 7, 45] "Having 
subdued his breath by restraint of breath and his organs by 
withdrawal of the senses he should make a localization of the 
mind-stuff upon some auspicious support. The form of the 
Exalted is incarnate and leaves one without desire of any 
[other] support. That should be understood to be fixed-atten- 
tion when the mind is fixed upon this form. That incarnate 
form of Hari on which one should ponder — let that be heard 
by you, Ruler of Men. A fixed-attention without location 1 
is impossible. His face is calm; his eye like the lovely lotus 
petal; his check is beautiful; the expanse of his broad forehead 
is resplendent [with the light of thought]; his pleasing orna- 
ment of ear-rings is placed even with the lobes of his ear; 
his neck is [marked with lines] like a shell of the sea; his 
great, broad chest is marked with the Qrivatsa; his belly has 
a deep navel and broken folds; he has eight long arms or [as 
Vishnu] four arms; his thighs and legs are well-formed; his 
excellent lotus-feet are evenly placed. Upon him who has 
become Brahma with stainless yellow garment let [the yogin] 

He characterizes contemplation which is to be attained by 

2. Contemplation (dhyana) is intentness upon the presented- 
idea within that [place]. 

While the fixed-attention requires an effort to avoid dis- 
similar fluctuations, which is the intentness upon the presented- 
ideas [that is] the fluctuations in the same [space], con- 
templation without requiring an effort has a single object. 
On this same point this was said by Kegidhvaja to Khandi- 
kajanaka [Vishnu Purana vi. 7. 89] "A continuous series 

1 Reading anddhara. 

62 James Haughton Woods, 

of focussed states upon the idea of his form regardless of 
anything else, that, O King, is contemplation. It is brought 
to pass by the six first aids." 

He characterizes concentration. 

3. Concentration is the same [concentration] appearing as the 

object only, and, as it were, emptied of itself. 

Concentration is a contemplation which consists in a flow 
of extremely clear fluctuations of mind -stuff, and which 
appears to be the object only. He speaks of an object [to 
which the rule of Panini iv. 1. 15 applies which states that 
compounds ending] in matra [take i after the suffix]. < Seem- 
ing to be emptied of itself.> The word <seeming> denotes the 
existence of the contemplation. Just as a gem of pure crystal 
appears as a flower only, not in its own form, — so [this con- 
templation] is like that. Fixed-attention is interrupted by dis- 
similar fluctuations; contemplation is not interrupted; from 
among the throbbings forth of object and act and agent of 
contemplation, concentration trobs forth as the object and 
nothing more. This same inasmuch as it spans a long 
time is the so-called conscious yoga. Yoga not conscious 
[of an object] has no throbbing in the object to be con- 

He states that the technical term, constraint, makes an easy 
term when used for fixed-attention and contemplation and con- 
centration, three at once. 

4. Constraint (samyama) is the three, [previous aids] in one. 

The three having one object receive the technical name of 

He tells what is the result of constraint. 

5. As a result of mastering this [constraint] there follows the 

shining forth of insight. 

As a result of mastering [that is] as a result of steadiness, 
a shining forth [that is] a spotlessness of the insight which has 
mastered the concentration arises. It has emptied itself of 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 63 

error and doubt and it throbs forth with the reality of the 
object to be contemplated. 

He gives the answer to the question 'But where is the result 
of the constraint which has been commanded?' 

6. Its application in by stages. 

The stages have been described as coarse or fine or the 
others, the deliberative and superdeliberative, the reflective 
and superreflective and so on. Constraint has its application 
to these. After mastering by constraint the previous stage, 
[the yogin] should desire to master the next stage to that. For 
unless the coarse have been directly experienced, the subtile 
cannot he directly experienced. This is the point. 

The objector asks 'In the First Book five aids from among 
all [the aids] to yoga were discussed; here three are discussed ; 
what is the reason for this?' In reply to this he says — 

7. The three are direct aids in comparison with the previous 


The five [aids] beginning with abstentions are indirect (bahir) 
aids to conscious concentration, because they remove (nivrtti- 
dvara.) the taints, of mind-stuff and body and breathing and 
organs, which are obstacles [to yoga]. But the three [aids] 
beginning with fixed-attention, are called <direct aids> in so 
far as they have the same object as the principal end (angin), 
because they are immediately useful [to that principal end]. 
Hence these [three] are direct aids in comparison with <the 
previous > five. And with this in mind (iti krtva) he has 
defined them here in order to speak of [their] application to 
each stage in order. 

8. Even these [three] are indirect aids to the seedless [con- 


Even the three [aids] beginning with fixed-attention are 
<indirect aids> to [concentration] not conscious [of an object]. 
Because, inasmuch as the principal end is without an object 
[and] inasmuch as the three have an object, they have not the 
same object. Accordingly, when there is a restriction of the 
three, which are emergent, by the higher passionlessness, which 

64 James Houghton Woods, 

is the undisturbed - calm of insight, which [in turn] is the 
complete fruition of conscious concentration, because even the 
conscious concentration is restricted, [the concentration] be- 
comes seedless. Because it gives its aid through a succession 
of efforts it is an indirect aid. 

Desirous now of describing the supernormal powers which 
result from constraint, he points out that mutations are the 
things aimed at by constraint. 

9. When there is a disappearence of the subliminal-impression 
of emergence and an appearance of the subliminal-impression of 
restriction, the mutation of restriction is inseparably connected 

with mind-stuff in its period of restriction. 

Emergence is conscious [concentration]. Restriction is the 
higher passionlessness by which this [conscious concentration] 
is restricted. This being so, when there is a disappearance of 
an emergent subliminal-impression and an appearance of a 
restricted impression, then the mind-stuff passes into the period 
[that is] the time of the unconscious [concentration], which has 
restricted subliminal-impressions. That inseparable connection 
of the disappearing and the appearing subliminal-impressions 
with the substance (dharmitvena) on the part of this mind- 
stuff, in its restricted period, because it is ever unstable by 
reason of the three aspects of the substance, and because it 
is thus disposed to mutation — this is the so-called restricted 
mutation. When the fluctuation of conscious concentration 
and its subliminal-impression have disappeared because of the 
fluctuation which consists in the higher passionlessness, be- 
cause only the subliminal-impression of the higher passionless- 
ness is clearly manifested, there [arises] the seedless < mutation 
of restrictions 

He tells of the steadiness of restriction when once the 
emergent subliminal-impressions have disappeared entirely. 

10. There is a peaceful flowing [of mind-stuff] by reason of 


The mind-stuff which has cast off all the stain of emergent 
subliminal-impressions, because of the accumulation of restricted 
subliminal-impressions, comes to have a peaceful flowing of a 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 65 

succession of restricted subliminal -impressions and of nothing 
more. The objector says 'Then at that time also [the mind- 
stuff] is unstable.' True. Still such a series of mutations is 
called steady [by us]. This is the point 

Having thus described the seedless state he tells of the 
mutation of conscious [concentration]. 

11. The mutation of concentration is the dwindling of dis- 
persiveness and the uprisal of focussedness of mind-stuff. 
The mind-stuffs < dispersiveness > [that is] its having the 
form of many objects is a quality which consists in its dis- 
traction. <Focussedness> is a quality which is to be described. 
Their dwindling and uprisal [is a] disappearance and appearance, 
but not an annihilation of something that exists and the creation 
of something non-existent. These two are the mutation of con- 
centration. The point is that the singleness of intent [that is] 
the steadiness that there is, when distraction has passed away 
by reason of practice — this is concentration. 

12. The mind-stuff 's focussed mutation occurs when the quiescent 
and the uprisen [states] are similar ideas [in respect of one 

Quiescent is past; uprisen is present —these two are similar 
ideas in respect of one subject. When the mind-stuff has two 
fluctuations both of which have a single object, there is the 
so-called focussed mutation. This focussedness when multiplied 
by twelve becomes fixed-attention; fixed-attention multiplied 
by twelve [becomes] contemplation; contemplation multiplied 
by twelve [becomes] concentration; concentration multiplied by 
twelve [becomes] the so-called conscious yoga. Such is the 

He extends by analogy the argument with regard to the 
focussed states of the restricted concentration, which are 
mutations of the central-organ, to other topics also. 

13. Thus have been explained mutations of external-aspect, of 
time-variation, and of intensity with respect to elements and to 

With regard to elements, such as earth, which are sub- 
stances, and with regard to organs, such as the eye. Mutations 

6 JAOS 3*. 

66 James Haughton Woods, 

are of three kinds, the mutation of external-aspect, the mutation 
of time-variation, and the mutation of intensity. <Have been 
explained > <thus> [that is] by the explanation of the mutation 
of the central-organ. To explain: Just as when a piece of 
clay has one external-aspect which is a [wet] ball and this 
disappears and another of its external-aspects which is a water- 
jar appears, so in the case of mind-stuff, when its emergent 
state passes away and its restricted state grows intense, — this 
is itself a mutation of external-aspect. — The time-variation 
(laksana) is so-called because it demarks (laksayati) [that is] 
separates itself from the external-aspect which consists of an 
effect. [The time-variation] is the three times, the future time- 
form, the present time-form, and the past time-form. Thus 
the three times are called three time-forms. In the case of 
these [three], the water-jar, which has these as its states 
(dharma), would have a future-state, its first time-form, a 
present-state, its second time-form, and a past-state, its third 
time-form. This is itself the mutation of time-variation. For 
the state which is future separates itself from the present and 
past states. The present and the other time -variations are 
also to be regarded in this same way. — Similarly the mutation 
of intensity must be regarded as belonging to the mutation 
of time- variation or to the external-aspect which is delimited 
by this [time-variation]. This mutation of intensity is as 
follows: That which will exist in a mundane-cycle yet- to-come 
is the most distant of those yet-to-come ; that which will come 
into existence [at some future time] in this mundane-cycle is 
the more distant of those yet-to-come; that which will be to- 
morrow is yet-to-come; that which has occurred just now is 
the most present. So mutatis mutandis you must speak [in 
the other cases]. Likewise newness and oldness and so on 
are mutations of intensity. So the formula would be that all 
beings are incessantly in mutation except the power of in- 
telligence (citigakti). 

He points out what the substance is to which this three-fold 
mutation belongs. 

14. A substance has in succession quiescent, uprisen, and 

indeterminable external-aspects. 
Quiescent are past which have performed their functional- 
activity; uprisen are present which have entered upon their 

Yoga-sfitras with Maniprabha. 67 

functional-activity, for instance, fetching water; indeterminable 
are yet-to-come continuing in potential form, in substances, 
pieces of clay or what not. For these because of their sub- 
tilty cannot be attributed by an attribution which would dis- 
tinguish them either from the substance or from other external- 
aspects. Consequently every effect, in so far as it is potential, 
is indeterminable and is to be counted as possible merely 
because of the existence of the cause. Thus every cause is 
essentially every effect. Because evidently plaintain sprouts 
spring up from seeds of cane that has been burned by the 
forest-fire. For it is impossible in this case that something 
non-existent should spring up, since everything springs up 
somewhere because of a multiplicity of factors which manifest 
it, such as place and time and predisposition. Such is the 
arrangement of cause and effect in the world. For those who 
are perfected in yoga, because place and so on is no obstacle, 
everything springs up from everything. — A substance which is 
in succession, [that is] which follows after these same quiescent 
and uprisen and indeterminable [mutations] ceaselessly rolling 
on like a water-wheel, <has> them <in successions Just as 
a substance is a whole-in-connection-with-its parts, for instance, 
a piece of clay with dust and [wet] ball and water-jar, or 
gold with neck-ornaments or something of the kind. 

The objector asks 'What reason is there for a single sub- 
stance, if there are many mutations?' In reply he says — 

15. The order of the sequence is the reason for the order of 

the mutations. 
In the case of clay a change in the order, which consists 
in an earlier and a later, of dust and round lump, of round 
lump and water-jar, of water-jar and pot-sherds is evidently a 
reason [that is] a means of making known a change, in the 
order of the mutations of one and the same clay, [that is] in 
the external-aspects [namely] the dust and the rest. Similarly 
it must be understood that the order of the time-forms yet- 
to-come, present, and past is the cause of the change of the 
mutation of the time-variation of the external-aspects. Like- 
wise we may know of change in mutations of intensities, of 
newness or of oldness, by means of the sequence of impercep- 
tible subtile mutations in the serial order of moments in a 

68 James Haughton Woods, 

water-jar or a grain of rice or of anything else. For one can 
see that grains of rice kept in a store-house, after a lapse of 
time, reach the intensity of dust merely by a touch of the 
hand. Because this intensity is not reached unless there be 
either a sequence of momentary mutations or unless there be 
fresh [grains]. Nor does it happen for no reason at all. Con- 
sequently a substance which is permanently in mutation has 
external-aspects which are different [from it]; the external- 
aspects have time-variations; these have intensities. This is 
established. Because the substance does not change, the theory 
of momentariness does not hold. So [our contention is] flaw- 
less. This being so, some mutations of the mind-stuff are 
perceptions, love and pleasure and what not. Others are 
accessible by verbal-communication or by inference, seven of 
them. This is said in the Comment « Restriction, right-living, 
subliminal-impressions, mutation, vitality, movement, and power 
are properties of mind-stuff excluded from sight.» In other 
words they are mediate experiences. Karma is preceded by 
merit and demerit. Because the mind-stuff has the three aspects 
(guna), its incessant mutation may be inferred. Vitality is 
the sustenance of breath and so on and is accessible [to our 
knowledge] by such indications as inspiration. Movement 
is an activity resident in the mind-stuff accessible [to our 
knowledge by inferences] from the movements of limbs. Power 
is the subtile form of effects [in the mind]. 

Thus external-aspects and the rest have been discussed as 
being objects of one who has excellence in constraint. From 
now up to the end of the book supernormal-powers are described 
in order that one may know the sense of mastery in respect 
of constraint upon this or that object. 

16. As a result of constraint upon the three mutations [there 
follows] the thinking of the past and of the future. 
For the sattva of the thinking-substance of itself by its own 
nature enlightens everything. When by constraint the obstacle 
from the taints of rajas and of tamas has ceased, without any 
source-of-valid-ideas it knows all. This is the settled rule. 
In this same substance there are certain external-aspects, 
certain time-forms, the future for instance, and certain in- 
tensities. < As a result of constraint upon the three mutations > 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 69 

which consist of external-aspects and time-variations and in- 
tensities the yogin gains an immediate-experience of past and 
future things. 

17. Word and thing and idea are confused because they are 
erroneously identified with each other. By constraint upon the 
distinctions between them [there arises] the [intuitive] knowledge 
of the cries of all living creatures. 
Over and above the syllable-sounds, but capable of being 
phenomenalized by syllable-sounds, permanent, undivided is 
the word -prototype (sphota). It is of two kinds. If we say 
that l c-o-w' is recognized as one word by the organ of hear- 
ing, we have then the prototype of the word. If we say that 
'Fetch the cow' is recognized as one sentence, we have the 
prototype of the sentence. And there is no mental process 
which perceives unity in the several momentary syllable-sounds. 
To explain: The three syllable-sounds g-au-h are similar to 
the letter 'g', the letter 'au', and the letter 'h' which are 
found in the words g-ana, c-au-ra, and paya-h [respectively]; 
these are the manifestors of three word-prototypes which are 
different in kind. [They are similar] because [they are pro- 
duced by] the same place of articulation. This has been said 
[Qiksa, 13] " There are eight places of articulation [of syllable- 
sounds] chest, throat, head, root of the tongue, teeth, nose, 
lips, and palate." Thus for the consonants (spared) the effort 
of the vocal organs [is said to be] in contact; 1 and for the 
sibilants and h [is said to be] full. In such cases the effort 
is evidently similar. The syllable-sounds 'g' and the others 
are produced by the organ of speech which is active in the 
eight places of articulation, when there is a contact between 
the eight places of articulation and the emitted breath im- 
pelled by a special effort. [These] syllables, in so far as they 
are all sounds, are objects knowable by the perception of the 
organ of hearing; and so they make manifest the word-proto- 
type of the word 'cow' and at the same time they make mani- 
fest some indistinct [impression] which bears resemblances to 
the several word-prototypes of words like gana. And this i s 
possible because the several resemblances [for example, the 
word-prototype of gana and other words] which appertain to 

Reading sprstah and see Qiksa, 38. 

70 James Haughton Woods, 

any object [for example, g and other syllable-sounds] are com- 
prised within (samaropat) that one thing [for example, the 
word-prototype of the word 'cow'] which is [primarily] to 
be manifested by that object (that is, g and other syllable- 
sounds) which go to make up the word 'cow'. Again the 
three syllable-sounds beginning with g, uttered in succession, 
being gathered together as flashing in a single mental-process 
(buddhi) which rises in the organ of hearing that is accom- 
panied by subliminal-impressions produced by the experience 
of those letters, manifests the word -prototype of the word 
gauh. [This word-prototype,] is one individualized-form (vyakti), 
apart from any other word-prototype and although without 
parts, [is manifested] as having parts consisting in the similarity 
imposed upon it on account of its being identified with them- 
selves [the syllable-sounds beginning with g]. [This word- 
prototype is manifested] as having an order and as being 
impermanent, although it is permanent and has no order. Just 
as a mirror that is soiled and irregular manifests a face that 
is unsoiled and regular as soiled and irregular, because simi- 
larity to the mirror is superimposed upon the face. Similarly 
the word-prototype when individualized by syllable-sounds con- 
veys a meaning. Nor can an objector say, 'Let us suppose 
that syllable-sounds are indistinctly manifested, and let us 
suppose that they are distinctly manifested when brought to- 
gether. What need is there for a word-prototype (sphota)?' 
The reply is this. Because distinctness and indistinctness, 
which are one phase (dharma) of perceptive knowledge, do 
not apply to the category (sthatva) of mediately perceived 
objects. If we say 'one word' or 'one sentence' we have 
knowledge of the word-prototype, with a perception given by 
the ear. Thus distinctness or indistinctness belongs to this 
[word-prototype] and to nothing else. "Why say more? We 
have already proved that people understand conventional-usage 
as regards this word [the sphota] with reference to an intended- 
object which is mixed as being in a predicate-relation (vikal- 
pita) which does not distinguish [the object] from words and 
ideas. Accordingly the word 'cow' and the thing 'cow' and 
the idea 'cow', word and thing and idea, are erroneously 
identified with each other as being not different. So there is 
confusion well-known [to every one] from boys up to pandits. 
The distinction between these [word and thing and idea] is 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 71 

well-known from authoritative books and from reasoning. The 
word may be manifested by syllable-sounds; the sentence may 
be manifested by words; and it conveys-sense (bodhaka) by 
the force (vrtti) of its expressive-power (gakti) and of its other 
forces [laksana and vyanjana]. Such is the entity of words. 
A thing is that which is expressed by a word as being a sub- 
stance, a quality, an activity, a common characteristic, or the 
like and it may also be indirectly devoted. Such is the en- 
tity of a thing. A presented-idea, resident in the thinking- 
substance, producable by a word, having a thing as its object — 
such is the entity of an idea. So we are to understand that 
there is a distinction in all cases, as in the case of the word 
'cow.' "When there is constraint upon this distinction, there 
arises an [intuitive] knowledge of the cries of all creatures, 
of beasts and birds and so forth. In other words, he who 
exercises constraint knows that these [birds, for instance] 
utter this meaning. 

18. As the result of direct-experience of subliminal-impressions 
there is the [intuitive] knowledge of previous births. 
Arising from hindrances in experience and causing hin- 
drances of memory; arising from karma and causing pleasure 
and pain— such are these subliminal-impressions, states of the 
mind-stuff, accumulated in successive previous births. By con- 
straint upon these, both as known by verbal -communication 
and as inferred [but now] immediately-experienced, the yogin 
gains an immediate-experience of the succession of previous 
births of himself and of others in so far as they are causes 
of this. With regard to this there is a story of the Exalted 
Jaigisavya. As a result, you know, of the immediate-experience 
of subliminal-impressions by this most excellent of yogins, who 
had mastered his primary-substance and who immediately ex- 
periences his successive births in ten great mundane-cycles, in 
the bodies of gods and animals men and so on, a supernormal 
discriminative discernment appeared. Him the Exalted Avatya 
asked 'Exalted One! in ten great mundane-cycles hast thou 
experienced more of pleasure or of pain?' Jaigisavya said 
'Whatever has been experienced by me as I came into life 
over and over again, whether among gods or men, all of it 
was pain.' Avatya said '"Was even the mastery over the 
primary-substance by which supernormal enjoyments without 

72 James Haughton Woods. 

dwindling by a mere wish fell to your share — was this pain? r 
He spake 'It is true. As compared with the pleasure of the 
world, mastery of the primary-cause is incomparable; as com- 
pared with Isolation, it is the highest pain, in that the thread 
of longing, the maker of all pain, is not cut off. As a result 
of cutting this away there is the pleasure of Isolation undis- 
turbedly-calm and incomparable.' Such is the little tale found 
in the Comment. The objector asks 'Since it is necessarily 
true that he in whom there is constraint has immediate-ex- 
perience, how is it that there is knowledge of previous births 
resulting from subliminal-impressions?' The reply is, True. 
As a result of constraint upon subliminal-impressions, together 
with their connections, it is consistent to have knowledge of 
a previous birth as being a connection. This is to be sup- 

He tells of another perfection. 

19. [As a result of constraint] upon a presented-idea tliere 
arises [intuitive] knowledge of the mind-stuff of another. 

By constraint upon the mind-stuff of another [the yogin] has 
immediate-experience of that [mind-stuff]. 

20. But [the intuitive knowledge of the presented-idea of another] 
does not have that [idea] together with that upon which it depends 
[as its object], because that [on tvhich it depends] is not in the 

field [of consciousness]. 
Just as there is a knowledge of connections as a result of 
immediate-experience of sublimal-impressions, is there a know- 
ledge of that on which [another's knowledge] depends as a 
result of immediate-experience of another's mind-stuff? He 
says, No. The mind-stuff of another and nothing more is im- 
mediately-experienced. The word ca has the sense of 'but.' 
< Together with that upon which it depends > [that is] together 
with its object; it is not however immediately-experienced. 
Because it is not known together with that upon which it 
depends. For constraint can be active only as regards that 
which is known by means of syllogistic marks and the like, 
and not with reference to that which is unknown. And so, 
— just as it is possible to know the connection of subliminal- 
impressions with a previous life on account of the very fact 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 73 

(lifigena) of there being a subliminal-impression and because 
of the Sacred Word "That which has been practised in a 
previous birth, -whether ferocious or not ferocious, whether 
cruel or mild, that is consistent even to-day. Therefore that 
is pleasing to him,"— so it is not possible to know what an- 
other's mind-stuff is thinking of. [Why?] Because there is 
nothing to indicate it. But the mind-stuff itself of another 
man is easily known by such indications as joy or what not. 
If after having [intuitively] known another's mind and after 
having immediately-perceived it by constraint he devotes his 
own mind-stuff to finding out what it is upon which that man's 
[mind-stuff] now depends, then he can know that upon which 
[the mind-stuff of the other depends] with reference to that 
time [now past]. But such fluctuations as passion are im- 
mediately-perceived because the mind-stuffs are the same. 
Such is the distinction [between the emotions and objects]. 

He tells of another perfection. 

21. As a result of constraint upon the external form of the 
body, when its power to be known is stopped, then as a con- 
sequence of the disjunction of light and of the eye there follows 

indiscernibility [of the yogin's body]. 
As a result of constraint practised upon the form of the 
body— that form which is the cause of knowledge by the eye — 
when the power which is favorable to knowing that form on 
the part of another's eye is stopped [that is] opposed, then 
when the form passes beyond the province of the knowledge 
obtained by the eye of another man, there follows the indis- 
cernibility of the body of the yogin, [that is to say,] he is not 
the object of [the other's] eye, whenever he wills. In this way, 
by constraint upon his own sound or touch or taste or smell, 
perfection in not being known by the organ-of-hearing or of 
the other [organs] follows. 

He tells of another supernormal power. 

22. Karma is advancing and unadvancing ; as a result of con- 
straint upon this [two-Jold karma] or upon the signs of death 

there arises an [intuitive] knowledge of the final end. 
Karma done in previous births which exists now is of two 
kinds, advancing and unadvancing. That which is functionally 

74 James Haughton Woods, 

engaged in giving results and which is having rapid fruition 
is advancing. It is like a wet piece of cloth which dries 
quickly when spread out in a heated place. That which gives 
forth its results at a later time and is now without functional 
activity and has a long fruition is unadvancing. It is like a 
wet piece of cloth rolled up into a hall in an unheated place. 
When there is constraint upon this, as a result of his im- 
mediate-experience, the termination [that is] the so-called 
<final end> of his term-of-life, which is the fruition of this 
[karma], is known. The final end in the case of Prajapati is 
the Great Dissolution; in the case of men death is the final 
end. This immediate-experience is such as this 'In that place 
and at that time my separation from the body will take place.' 
When there is immediate-experience of this, the yogin, for the 
sake of experiencing the fruition of it, instantly assumes many 
bodies and dies when he wills. In case he is experiencing it 
in this [life] there is a delay of death [for a period] of one 
[body].— Incidentally he says <or upon the signs of death.> 
Of these [three], the signs of death pertaining to one's self 
[would occur when, for instance, a man] who has stopped the 
openings of his ears with his hands does not hear the sound 
of the vital-spirits [in his own body]. [The signs-of-death] 
pertaining to other creatures [would occur] when one sees the 
hirelings of Yama or something of the kind. Those pertain- 
ing to the gods [would occur] when one sees heaven unex- 
pectedly or whatever else. These three kinds of indications of 
dying are called signs-of-death (arista) because they terrify 
like an enemy {art). <Or> by these the yogin also has a 
knowledge of death. 

23. By constraint upon friendliness and other [sentiments] there 
arise powers of friendship. 

Previously [i. 33] constraint upon friendliness and compassion 
and joy has been prescribed. By this the powers [that is] 
energies of these arise. By these [powers] the yogin becomes 
the benefactor and friend of any kind of living being and the 
deliverer from pain and is not a partisan. Indifference, how- 
ever, which is nothing but a state of impartiality is not any 
power of his because constraint is [upon the other three]- 

Yoga-sidras with Maniprabha. 75 

24. [As a result of constraint] upon powers there arises power 

like that of an elephant. 
If there be cultivation of powers such as those of the ele- 
phant or of Hanuman or of Garuda, as a result of constraint 
these powers appear in the yogin. The mind-stuff of itself has 
capacity and so on for everything. 

25. As a result of casting the light of a process [of the central- 
organ] there arises the [intuitive] knowledge of the subtile, the 

concealed, and the obscure. 
The luminous process has been previously [i. 36] described. 
That light of the process which consists in an immediate- 
experience of illumination is a spot which is diffused forth 
everywhere, the untainted sattva of the thinking-substance. 
As a result of casting [that is] of throwing forth this [light] 
upon the subtile, such as an atom; or upon what might be 
concealed by something in a treasury, for example; or upon 
something obscure such as an elixir lying within [Mount] Meru, 
[intuitive] knowledge [that is] immediate experience arises. 
Just as one has knowledge of water-jars and such things by 
contact with the light of the sun. 

Thus having described the [intuitive] knowledge by means 
of the light of the thinking-substance immediately-experienced 
by constraint, he tells of this [knowledge] by means of this 
[light] with regard to created things. 

26. As a result of constraint upon the sun there arises the 

[intuitive] knowledge of the cosmic spaces. 
As a result of constraint upon the disc of the sun shining 
brilliantly in the sky and wreathed with a thousand rays, the 
gate to which is through the Susumna, the mind-stuff, not 
separate from the object-for-sight, immediately experiences the 
fourteen cosmic spaces. 

27. [As a result of constraint] upon the moon there arises [in- 

tuitive] knowledge of the arrangement of the stores. 
As a result of constraint upon the moon he immediately 
experiences the particular order of the asterisms. Because 
the sun does not cause the asterisms to appear, no knowledge 
of them arises from constraint upon it. This is the point. 

76 James Haughton Woods, 

28. [As a result of constraint] upon the Zenith (dhruva) 
there arises [intuitive] knowledge of their movements. 

As a result of constraint upon the Zenith he knows the 
movements of these stars so that he may say ' That star goes 
with that planet by that path for so much time.' 

Having thus described outer perfections he tells of per- 
fections pertaining to one's self. 

29. [As a result of constraint] upon the cakra of the navel 
there arises [intuitive] knowledge of the arrangement of the 

As a result of constraint upon that cakra of the navel, 
which is in the midmost part of the body and has ten petals 
and lies above the ddhara and the linga cakra, which have 
forty petals, he knows the constitution of the body. The dis- 
orders are three, wind, bile, and phlegm. The secretions are 
seven, skin, blood, flesh, sinew, bone, marrow, and semen. The 
arrangement of the body is such that the external in each 
case precedes. 

30. [As a result of constraint] upon the hollow of the throat 

there follows cessation of hunger and thirst. 
Below the thread of the tongue there is a region of the 
throat in the form of a hollow. By the collision of the breath 
and so on with this, hunger and thirst arise. As a result of 
constraint upon this, these two cease. 

31. [As a result of constraint] upon the tortoise-tube there 
follows motionlessness [of the mind-stuff]. 

Below the hollow there is, within the chest, a tube, in shape 
a tortoise. Asa result of constraint upon this the mind-stuff 
enters into it and gains motionlessness. 

32. [As a result of constraint] upon the radiance in the head 
[there follows] the sight of the Siddhas. 
As a result of constraint upon that aperture which is in 
the skull, the so-called opening of Brahma, and which — after 
there is a conjunction [of this light] with the Susumna and 
after there is a conjunction with the jewel's lustre of the 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 77 

mind-stuff resident in the heart — becomes resplendent as the 
radiance in the head, — [as a result of this] he beholds the 
Siddhas, although they are invisible. 

33. Or as a result of Vividness (pratibha) the [yogin dis- 

cerns] all. 
For if constraint be made for the sake of the discriminative 
discernment, the Elevation (prasamkhydna), the deliverer from 
the round -of- rebirths, there follows Vividness, an intuitive 
[knowledge] indicating the approach of the Elevation and 
arising from Vivid-light, which is reflective thinking and nothing 
more. <Or> by this the yogin knows <all.> Just as people 
see by the ray of dawn which indicates the rising of the sun. 
But in the Rajavartika the Vivid-light is an [intuitive] know- 
ledge arising instantly in accordance with the object produced 
by nothing but the central-organ without regard to any causes. 
As a result of constraint upon this, the Vividness, the deliverer, 
a prior state of discriminative discernment, dawns [in the mind- 
stuff]. By this the yogin knows all. So it is explained. 

34. [As a result of constraint] upon the heart there arises a 

consciousness of the mind-stuff. 
By constraint upon a station of the mind-stuff, the lotus of 
the heart with its face downwards, there is a consciousness 
of the mind-stuff together with its subconscious-impressions. 

35. Experience is a presented-idea which is undistinguished on 
the part of the sattva and of the Self, each absolutely un- 
commingled [in the presented-idea]. Since the sattva exists as 
object for another, the [intuitive] knowledge of the Self arises 

as the result of constraint upon itself as object. 
<That presented-idea which is undistinguished > on the part 
of the thinking-substance and the self, which are absolutely 
different in so far as they are object-of-experience and ex- 
periencer, is a mutation of the thinking-substance, a presented- 
idea of pleasure and of pain and of infatuation, undistinguished 
by the knowers of the reflection of the Self, [that is,] alike 
in quality to them, and attributive of pleasure and so on [to 
the Self] by means of the reflection — this is experience, resident 
in the thinking-substance because it is an object-for-sight. It 
exists for the sake of another, [that is,] it becomes subordinate 

78 James Haughton Woods. 

to the Self, the experiencer. The experience is for the sake 
of another; it consists in a presented-idea which is dependent 
upon the reflection of intelligence. Other than this is the 
essence of intelligence, which is the reflection; it exists for its 
own sake and is not subordinate to another. By constraint 
upon this the Self has an immediate-experience of the Self. 
And this object-for-sight resident in the thinking-substance is 
not able by the Self, who is self-lightening, to make the Self 
into an object. On the contrary, the knowledge of the Self 
is said to be empty of the forms of the not-self, because it 
knows the reflection of itself and nothing more. And in this 
sense there is the Sacred Word [Brhad Ar. Up. iv. 5. 15] 
"By whom, pray, should one discern the Discerner?" 

Now when this constraint has immediately-experienced the 
Self he points out what are the previously existing perfections. 

36. As a result of this, vivid organs of hearing and of touch 

and of sight and of taste and of smell are generated. 
As a result of this constraint upon that which exists for 
its own sake, (the Vividness previously described,) the [intuitive] 
knowledge which is occupied with itself is generated by the 
central-organ and no other, aided by the Bright karma which 
arises from yoga. The organs for knowing supernormal sounds 
and touches and colors and tastes and smells, the organ of 
hearing and the skin and the eye and the tongue and the nose 
are generated in order, with the technical names of the organ 
of hearing and the organ of touch and the organ of sight 
and the organ of taste and the organ of smell. When the 
organ of hearing, which is the organ for knowing supernormal 
sounds, comes to the yogin, then the technical term <organ 
of hearing > is given to his organ of hearing (grotra). Similarly 
the < organ of smell > is the technical name for his nose. And 
so in this way the ellipsis must be supplied. 

The objector asks 'Has then this yogin accomplished his 
task?' In reply to this he says — 

37. To concentration these [supernormal sensations] are obstacles; 

to emergence they are perfections (siddhi). 
<These> [that is] Vividness and the like in the case of one 
devoted <to concentration^ the fruit of which is final bliss, 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 79 

are obstacles, [that is,] impediments. Accordingly he who 
desires liberation overlooks them. For his task is not accom- 
plished, even if he have ten thousand perfections, unless he 
have a complete enlightenment of self. This has been said 
by Qri Krishna, the Supreme Teacher, [Bhag. Gita xv. 20] 
"Having understood this he would be wise and would have 
accomplished his task, O Bharata." But in the case of one 
devoted to emergence these [supernormal sensations] are per- 

Having thus described the supernormal-powers of constraint 
as jconsisting in knowledge culminating in the vision of the 
self, he tells of them as consisting in action. 

38. As a result of slackening the causes of bondage and as a 
result of the knowledge of the process, the mind-stuff penetrates 

into the body of another. 
The mind-stuff which is disposed to pervade in all directions 
is fixed, [that is,] bound to its own body and to nothing else 
by contraction. The cause of this is right and wrong doing. 
By constraint upon these two a slackening arises. A process, 
[that is,] a collection of tubes (nadi) is that by means of which 
the mind-stuff proceeds. By constraint upon that also there 
is the knowledge so that one thinks 'By that tube [the mind- 
stuff] passes through.' Likewise there is a knowledge of the 
tubes which are the paths for the breaths and the organs. 
And so when the rope of bondage is destroyed, the mind-stuff 
which knows the path gains entrance to the body of another, 
whether it be dead or alive, just as one enters into one's own 
clothing or another's. The organs enter after the mind-stuff 
just as bees [enter after] the king-bee. 

39. As a result of the subdual of the Uddna there is no adhesion 
to water, mud, thorns, or similar objects and [at death] there is 

the upward flight. 
As every one knows there are two modes of action of the 
organs. One consists in the perception of external things and 
the like; the other is internal and consists of efforts [to pre- 
serve] the source of life and is common to all action. The 
effects of this [two-fold] mode of action are the five breaths 
(prdna). Of these [five] 1. Prana extends from the tip of the 

80 James Haughton Woods, 

nose to the heart. 2. Samana extends from the heart to the 
navel and [the derivation is] in the sense that it leads (nayati) 
the food equally [over the body]. 3. Apana extends from the 
navel to the sole of the foot and [the derivation is] in the 
sense that it removes (apanayati) filth. 4. Udana is a fluc- 
tuation from the tip of the nose to the head and is the cause 
of the upward flight. 5. Vyana pervades all the body. Of 
these Prana is the chief. As a result of the subdual of the 
Udana, from among these, by constraint the yogin because of 
his lightness passes over ocean, mud, thorns, and other things 
without adhering to them. And at will he gains death. 

40. As a result of the subiual of the Samana there arises a 

As a result of mastery of the Samana which pervades the 
fire resident near the navel a radiance of flame arises, by 
which he appears radiant. Similarly by subduing the Prana 
and the rest, it must be understood, that perfection in what 
can be done by this [fire is done] as [the yogin] wills. 

41. As a result of constraint upon the relation between the 
organ-of-hearing and the air there arises the supernormal organ- 

Although the organ-of-hearing is of the personality-substance, 
the relation between it and the air is that of container and 
contained. This is a partial statement [which applies to the 
other organs]. By constraint upon the relations between the 
eye and light, water and taste, nose and earth, supernormal 
organs with the technical names of the organ of hearing and 
the organ of touch and the organ of sight and the organ of 
taste and the organ of smell [iii. 36] arise, by which he in- 
stantly knows supernormal sounds and so forth. 

42. Either as the result of constraint upon the relation between 
the body and the ether or as the result [of the balanced-state of 
lightness as of a cotton fhre there follows the passing through 

Having subdued the connection between these two, he be- 
comes light in body by concentration upon the common 
characteristic of what is light or of what is cotton-fibre and 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 81 

the like, first of all he walks upon water, then he walks upon 
spiders' threads, next upon sunbeams, thereafter he courses 
through air at will. 

43. The fluctuation outwardly unadjusted is the Great Dis- 
carnate; as a result of this the dwindling of the obscuration of 
light. As a result of constraint upon the coarse (sthiila), the 
attribute (svarupa), the inherence (anvaya), and the pur- 
posiveness (arthavattva) there is a subdual of the elements. 
"When the sense of heing "I" is in the body, by resolving 
'my central-organ shall be outside,' the central-organ gains a 
fluctuation outside the body. This is the adjusted fixed- 
attention that is called discarnate. "When as a result of this 
there is a renunciation of the sense of being "I" in the body, 
the external fluctuation is gained by this very fact. This same 
is the unadjusted fixed-attention called Great Discarnate. <As 
a result of this> the mind-stuff which is essentially light has 
its obscuration due to karma resulting from hindrances and 
so forth dwindled away. As a result of this it gains the state 
of being the knower of all. 1. The coarse visible form of the 
five elements, an orderly arrangement of parts, containing the 
common characteristics of earthiness and so on, joined with 
sounds and the other [perceptible] things, with the five quali- 
ties successively reduced by one. Such is the first form. 
2. Next would be the second form, the essential attribute 
baving successively the characteristic-mark of hardness, liqui- 
dity, heat, impulsiveness, all-pervasiveness. Impulsiveness is, 
for instance, the wind's power of carrying [blades of] grass 
and the like. 3. Then the third form, the subtile cause of 
these, the atoms; of these the subtile causes are the five fine 
substances. 4. Next the fourth form of these, the three 
aspects. For these are common [to all] and are the < in- 
herence > in the sense that they inhere in the causes of them- 
selves (sva). 5. Then the fifth form of these elements is the 
purposiveness, the capacity for experience and liberation, which 
is based in the aspects, as it comes to them (svesu) from the 
inherence of the aspects. Thus by constraint upon the five 
kinds of causes of the effects of the elements in succession 
beginning with the coarse, the elements conform to the wish 
of the yogin, just as cows follow after their calves. 

« JAOS 34. 

82 James Haughton Woods, 

44 [45] K As a result of this, atomization and the other per- 
fections appear; there is perfection of body; and its external- 
aspects are unobstructed. 

As the result of this subdual of the elements, atomization 
and the rest of the eight perfections appear in the yogin. 
1. Atomization is the similarity to an atom. 2. Magnification 
is pervasiveness. 3. Levitation is lightness like that of a hall 
of cotton. 4. Ponderation is heaviness like that of Meru. 

5. Extension is the touching of the moon with a finger. 

6. Efficacy is the obtaining of desire. 7. Mastery is the power 
to compel elements. 8. Sovereignty is the power to create 
elements. Such are the eight sovereign powers. Of these, 
those ending with Extension are perfected by constraint upon 
the coarse; Efficacy by constraint upon the essential-attribute; 
the remainder by constraint upon the cause. Such is the 
analysis. — < Perfection of body> is to be described. And by 
constraint upon the elements there is no obstruction to this 
body by qualities of the elements such as hardness. So that 
he penetrates within the rock; cold and heat and so on do 
not impede [him]. 

45 [46]. Perfection of body is beauty, grace, power, and the 

hardness of the thunder-bolt. 
Beauty is what is pleasant to the eye; grace is charm of all 
the body; power is energy; hardness of the thunder-bolt is 
the condition of him in the structure of whose limbs there is 
hardness as of the thunder-bolt, familiar enough in the case 
of Hanuman. 

He tells of another subdual of the elements which is a 
means of subduing organs. 

46 [47]. As a result of constraint upon the process-of -perception, 
the essential-attribute, the feeling-of -personality, the inherence, 

and the purposiveness there follows subdual of the organs. 

Sound, for instance the fourth note; touch, for instance cold; 
color, for instance yellow; taste, for instance sweet; smell, for 
instance perfume. The five fluctuations, which are effects, the 

* Qrl Ramananda Yati has chosen to combine sutras 43 and 44 into 
one. Consequently the numbering of the sutras is changed by one from 
iii. 44 to the end of Book Third. 

Yoga-sutras with Haniprabhd. 83 

processes-of-perception belonging to the organs, from the organ 
of hearing onwards, have the sounds and the rest, which are in 
essence a general and a particular, as their field of operation. 
This is the first form. Illuminativeness is an essential-attribute, 
the second form. Personality-substance made of sattva and 
having the feeling-of-personality as its characteristic mark is 
the third cause of these [organs]. Inherence and purposiveness 
the fourth and fifth form have been explained [iii. 43]. By 
constraint upon these five kinds of organs he gains the sub- 
dual of the organs. 

What is the result of this? In reply he says — 

47 [48]. As a result of this [there ensues on the part of the 
body] speed as great as that of the central-organ, action of in- 
struments of perception disjunct [from the body], and the sub- 
dual of the primary-cause. 
< Speed as great as that of the central-organ> is the attain- 
ment of unsurpassed motion on the part of the body like that 
of the mind. <Action of instruments of perception disjunct 
[from the body]> is the modifiability * of organs which are 
quite distinct from the discarnate as regards knowledge of 
distant and external objects. The subdual of the primary- 
cause, [that is,] the inherence, the fourth kind [of element or 
organ] is the mastery of the whole world. Such are the per- 
fections which arise as a result of the subdual of the organs. 
Those perfections beginning with atomization and ending with 
the subdual of the primary -cause are called in this book 
Honey-faced, because they taste like bits of honey. In other 
words they are Honey-faced because they are like honey. Or 
else, the Honey-faced are those the cause of which, [that is,] 
that towards which something goes, is immediately-experienced 
by means of the subdual of the elements and organs. This 
is the honey, that norm-bearing insight produced by yoga, 
which has as its object the things extending from the coarse 
to the primary-cause. 

Thus perfection of knowledge and of action which result 
from constraint, which are the objects aimed at extending 

1 Or one might translate 'disjunct action.' 

84 James Haughton Woods, 

to discriminative discernment as leading directly to belief, 
have been set in order. He now tells of the perfections sub- 
ordinate to discriminative discernment. 

48 [49]. He who has nothing more than the discernment into 
the difference between the sattva and the Self is the commander 

of all forms of being and the perceiver of the whole. 

When there is a subdual of the inner organ from which 
the stains of rajas and of tamas have been washed away by 
constraint upon that which is an end to itself as previously 
[iii. 35] described, there arises a discernment of the distinction 
between the sattva of the thinking-substance and the self in 
the case of the yogin who is established in the lower dispassion, 
called the consciousness of mastery, and who has nothing but 
this [discernment], and who is devoted to the repetition of 
that | discernment]. He becomes perfected in being commander, 
[that is,] regulator of all forms of being, and in being the 
knower of all things past and present and future. This is the 
so-called [i. 36] "grief less" perfection. 

He now tells of the most important perfection, that of the 
discriminative discernment. 

49 [50], As a result of passionlessness even with regard to 
these [perfections] there follows, after the dwindling of the seeds 

of the defects, Isolation. 

When this griefless state is perfected as a result of passion- 
lessness, the higher passionlessness arises even with regard to 
the discriminative discernment, which is the cause of this 
[griefless perfection]. Then when there is a dwindling, [that 
is,] a total disappearance of the seed, [that is,] the subliminal- 
impression of error due to the defects, [that is,] the hindrances, 
now that the mind-stuff has nothing but subliminal-impressions 
of the higher passionlessness, the Self is perfected in being 
grounded in himself, [that is,] in <Isolation.> This is the 
perfection < consisting of subliminal-impressions only> as it is 
called [i. 18], 

When obstacles to this arise, he tells what are the means 
of removing them. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 85 

50 [51]. In case of solicitations from those in high places, these 
should arouse no attachment or pride, for undesirable 
consequences recur. 
Now there are four kinds of yogins 1. Prathamakalpikas, 
2. Madhubhumikas, 3. Prajnajyotis and 4. Atikrdntabhavaniyas. 
Of these [four], 1. the first has merely begun in constraint 
and knows nothing of such things as the mind-stuff of another. 
2. The second after gaining by conscious yoga the Honeyed 
stage of mind-stuff, the so-called norm-bearing insight [i. 48], 
desires to conquer the elements and organs which are im- 
mediately-experienced. By means of the subdual of these he 
is desirous of gaining successively the three stages previously 
described as Honey-faced and griefless and consisting of sub- 
liminal-impressions only. 3. But the third [yogin], unshakable 
by Mahendra and the other gods, because he has subdued 
elements and organs, after gaining two stages, inasmuch as he 
has the desire to perfect the two stages which begin with the 
griefless [stage], strives for the constraint upon that which is 
an end to itself. 4. The fourth, however, a high-souled exalted 
being, dispassionate towards the three stages ending with dis- 
cernment which he has gained, fearless of obstacles, released 
while yet living, abides in the fourth stage. Of him the in- 
sight in seven stages advancing to the highest has been ex- 
plained. Of these four in the case of the first yogin there is 
not fitness for solicitation by the gods. So, by elimination, 
it is the second yogin, the Madhubhiimika who is solicited, 
[that is,] invited by <those in high places,> [that is,] those 
who are masters of this or that high place, for instance, 
Mahendra. "Sir! will you sit here? Will you rest in this 
heavenly high place? This maiden might prove attractive. 
This enjoyment is supernormal. This elixir wards off age and 
death. This chariot goes as you will." When he is thus in- 
vited, an attachment, [that is,] a lust arises in him so that he 
feels with pride. 'How great is the power of this yoga of 
mine!' This should not be done. Bather let him reflect upon 
the defects in it thus 'Baked on the pitiless coals of the round- 
of-rebirths and mounted 1 upon the wheel of successive births 
and deaths, I have hardly found the lamp of yoga which 
dispels the darkness of the hindrances. And of this [lamp] 

1 Compare Mudraraksasa v. 5; vii. 12. 

86 James Houghton Woods, 

the lust-born gusts of sensual things are enemies. How could 
it be that I who have seen its light could be led astray by 
sensual things, a mere mirage, and throw myself as fuel into 
that same blaze of the round-of-rebirths as it flares up again? 
.Fare ye well! Sensual things [deceitful] as dreams and to be 
craved by wile folk.' His purpose thus determined let him 
cultivate concentration. If attached, he falls from his position. 
Thinking of himself in pride as having done all, he is not 
perfected in yoga. Accordingly because one whose yoga is 
broken is involved again in the round-of-rebirths, which is not 
desired, not being attached and not being proud are the means 
of throwing off the obstacles to Isolation. 

The [intuitive] knowledge of discrimination, the deliverer, 
which results when the Self has been mirrored in the thinking- 
substance has been previously described. He tells of another 
method for this. 

51 [52]. As a result of constraint upon moments and their 
sequence [there arises the intuitive] knowledge proceeding from 

An indivisible fragment of time is the true moment. Other 
[divisions] such as hours and so on are fragments of time, 
consisting of collections of moments, are not true [moments]. 
For a collection of moments has no existence in reality. By 
constraint upon the moments, expressed thus 'Of these, this 
moment comes before that; this comes after that' and upon 
their sequence, [that is,] upon an antecedent and a consequent, 
he gains an immediate-experience, a discrimination, of extremely 
subtile things. And from that an [intuitive] knowledge, which 
is in essence an immediate-knowledge of things, beginning with 
the sky and ending with man, in one instant arises. 

This [intuitive] knowledge arising from constraint upon 
moments and having everything for its object he will describe 
later. Now he tells of the particular object, a subtile thh)g, 
of this [constraint], 

52 [53]. As a result of this there arises the deeper knowledge 
of two equivalent things which cannot be distinguished in species, 

in characteristic-mark, or in place. 
A distinction is a determination. For in ordinary life there 
are three means of determining the differences between objects. 

Toga-sutras with Maniprabha. 87 

Of these, the idea of the difference between the cow and the 
gayal, which are similar as regards place and characteristic- 
mark, is [the difference] by species. The idea of the difference 
between two cows which are similar as regards place and 
species, is [the difference] by characteristic-mark. The deter- 
mination of the difference between two myrobalans, which are 
similar in species and characteristic-mark, is the result of such 
a difference in place as being in front and behind. But when, 
in order to test the [intuitive] knowledge of the yogin, the 
myrobalan lying in the front place is put in the place of the 
myrobalan which was behind, and the myrobalan which was 
behind is removed, while the yogin is intent upon something 
else, then because it is impossible to determine change in 
species and so on in the case of the two myrobalans, which 
are similar in respect of the species of myrobalan and in the 
characteristic-marks such as changes of color and in place, — 
<as a result of this> the yogin gains the deeper knowledge 
of the change merely by the [intuitive] knowledge coming 
from constraint upon the moment. During those moments which 
are antecedent to that moment in which the myrobalan which 
was in front was put in the place of the myrobalan which 
was behind a series of previous mutations of being in front 
were produced in the myrobalan in front and not in the myro- 
balan behind. Because that [myrobalan behind] in those 
[earlier] moments was endowed with a series of mutations of 
being behind. And thus the yogin who knows the moments 
and their sequence, in knowing the uninterrupted-succession 
of this moment as compared with the moments of the series 
of the two, of the one in front and the one behind, each with 
its own mutation [in time], determines thus 'This one is now 
in front; previous to this it was behind, not in front.' 

53 [54]. The [intuitive] knowledge proceeding from discrimi- 
nation is the Deliverer, has all things as its object, has all 
times for its object, in an inclusive whole of time without 
sequence (akrama). 
The knowing of the whole as a result of constraint upon 
this and that has been described. This [knowing of the whole] 
has for its objects merely the different varieties, just as when 
one says 'I had a dinner of all the different condiments pro- 
duced in the kitchen,' the meaning conveyed is that he ate 

88 James Haugliton Woods, 

all the varieties of condiments. Similarly again if one say* 
'I had a dinner of all the food served with all the condiments 
on the dishes,' the meaning conveyed is that he ate the whole 
as such and with its varieties. Likewise this discriminative 
knowledge proceeding from constraint upon the moments has 
all things as such as its object, has all times for its object, 
[that is,] has objects in all different varieties. — Because it 
penetrates into the reality of the Self, it rescues from the 
ocean of the round-of-rebirths. In this sense it has the tech- 
nical name of <Deliverer.> — <In an inclusive whole of time> 
[that is] simultaneously it has the whole collection as its basis, 
like a myrobalan on the palm of your hand. 

Thus having cleared up the limits of excellence in discrimi- 
native discernment, the results of supernormal powers in this 
or that, that is, the constraints, he approaches the question 
whether the immediate-experience of the difference between 
the sattva and the Self, in case there be such excellence in 
discriminative discernment or not, is sufficient for release. 

54 [55]. Isolation occurs when the purity of the sattva and 
of the Self is equal. 
There is <purity> [that is] absence of all fluctuations, when 
the thinking-substance has cast off all the stains of rajas and 
by virtue of discriminative discernment is nothing but sub- 
liminal-impressions. Then in the case of the Self also, who 
is permanently pure, there is purity, <that is,> absence of 
experience in predicate-relations. So when the purity of these 
two is equal, there is Isolation. But supernormal powers in 
this or that have been discussed for the sake of awakening 
faith. Isolation, however, as a result of nothing but the sub- 
liminal-impressions of the Self uncharacterized by the thinking- 
substance, is perfected, when undifferentiated -consciousness 
(avidya) has ceased, as consisting in the non-awakening of 
future pain. 

Book Fourth: Concentration. 

I bow down to Sita and Rama who have that incomparable 
perfection consisting in Isolation and nothing more which belongs 
to those who are perfected in all the means of attainment. 

Yoga-sfdras with Maniprdbha. 89 

In the First and Second Books yoga and the means of 
attaining it have been set forth. In the Third Book the three 
direct aids technically called constraint, the different mutations 
aimed at by constraint, and the perfections have been described. 
Of these [latter] certain perfections such as those of the past 
or of the future are aids to the yoga of Isolation by means 
of faith; others such as the subdual of the organs are im- 
mediate aids. The perfection in the discriminative knowledge 
called the Deliverer is discussed as a result of yoga. Now 
Isolation itself as being of primary importance is to be set 
forth. For this purpose the mind-stuff that is conducive to 
Isolation, the world beyond, the self over and above momen- 
tary mental-processes, the experiencer of the pleasures and 
so on which are evolved forms of the mind-stuff, and the 
Bain-Cloud of [knowable] Things are to be described. And 
incidentally other things are to be described. Thus the Fourth 
Book is begun. In it he wishes to describe that mind-stuff 
which is capable of Isolation from among the mind-stuffs that 
have been first perfected, and he says that there are five 
kinds of perfections previously described, because of the 
different causes. 

1. Perfections proceed from birth or drugs or spells or self- 

castigation or concentration. 
Perfection by birth is such as belongs to yaksas, and is, 
for instance, passing through the air. In [personages] such 
as Kapila, moreover, this is innate. [Perfection] in the use 
of particular drugs is to be found in such as Kapila. In the 
case of certain persons there is perfection in atomization by 
the repetition of spells. Perfection by self- castigation is to 
be found in such as Vishvamitra. These four perfections are 
really produced by yoga practised in former births and mani- 
fested in this birth which serves as efficient cause. Accord- 
ingly, in so far as there is disappointment in the practice of 
yoga, a beginning [should be made] here, even if so perfection 
is not perceived, because of results to come in another birth. 
Perfections proceeding from concentration have been explained 
in the previous book. 

The objector says 'By the might of his self-castigation Nan- 
dlcvara is reported to have entered by means of the side-long 

90 James Houghton Woods, 

glance of the husband of the Blessed Gaurl into the mutation 
of a divine body. With regard to this, in the first place this 
human body cannot be the material cause of any divine body. 
Because if this [human body] be regarded as subsisting, it is 
impossible that it should be mutated into another [body]; if 
transitory (waste), it cannot be the cause of anything. Nor 
can you say that the parts only [of the human body] should 
be the material cause [of the divine body], because it is im- 
possible that a cause which is nothing but a human body 
should produce an effect which is totally different from it.' 
To this objection he replies. 

2. The mutation into another birth is the result of the filling 

in of the evolving-cause. 

The evolving-causes beginning with the primary- cause and 
ending with [the element of] earth are real everywhere, because 
they fill in the parts of human or other bodies; by conforming 
to right-living, as the case may be, as efficient cause, they 
permeate the parts. Because of this it is right to speak of 
<the mutation into another birth. > Just as by the help of 
an evolving-cause a bit of flame pervades a vast area of grass 
and so on in a forest. 

The objector asks 'Does the filling in of the evolving-cause 
require such efficient-causes as right-living or not. If this is 
not the case, then one would have to admit that the filling in 
would be in all [causes]. And you cannot [hold] the first 
[alternative]. Because if something such as right-living were 
to set things in motion, you would then be going against your 
own doctrine which holds that the purpose of the Self sets 
things in motion.' In reply to this he says — 

3. The efficient cause gives no impulse to the evolving-causes, 
[but] the mutation follows when the barrier [to the evolving 

cause] is cut, as happens with the peasant. 

For in the Samkhya, which does not hold the doctrine of 
the Icvara, only the purpose of the Self, which lies in the 
future, sets the evolving-causes in motion. But we who hold 
the doctrine of the Icvara maintain that the Icvara sets [the 
evolving-causes] in motion in so far as this [purpose of the 
Icvara] gives the thing aimed at. Thus the purpose of the 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 91 

Self is said to set things in motion in so far as it is the 
thing aimed at. But the efficient cause does not set [the 
evolving-causes] in motion, because it is an effect of them. 
On the contrary, as a result of this efficient cause there is 
resistance to the barrier, [that is,] the obstacle. Because of 
right-living the evolving - causes for the rejection of wrong- 
living quite of themselves set in motion towards a mutation 
into a god, or whatever it may be. When there is an obstacle 
to merit because of the excess of evil [karma], mutation into 
an animal or something else occurs. Just as Nahusa was 
mutated into a snake. — The words <as happens with the 
peasant> refer to the peasant, [that is,] the ploughman who 
merely makes a cutting of the barrier to the water on some 
higher level; then the water quite of itself sets in motion into 
another meadow-plot. 

The objector asks 'When the yogin at one time creates 
many bodies for the sake of enjoyment, then why are there 
mind-stuffs for these?' In reply he says. 

4. The created mind-stuffs may result from the sense of per- 

sonality and from this alone. 
The mind-stuffs are created in the sense that they are 
created by the power of yoga. As a result of the filling in 
of evolving-causes which are subject to the yogin's will, just 
as a body is produced, [so mind-stuff] from the personality- 
substance as evolving-cause. 

For because mind-stuffs refer constantly to different things, 
the yogin has not perfection in experience. Therefore he says 

5. When there is a variety of evolving-causes the mind-stuff 

which impels the many is one. 
From among the created mind-stuffs the yogin creates a 
mind-stuff which necessarily acts in the particular way which 
conforms to his own enjoyment; by the power of his yoga this 
mind-stuff becomes the guide of these [others] and in this way 
his enjoyment is arranged as planning for that [enjoyment]. 

Thus reasons have been given for the five kinds of perfected 
mind-stuffs as coming from birth or the other [sources]; from 
among these he selects the mind-stuff which is conducive to 

92 James Haughton Woods, 

6. Of these [five perfections] that which proceeds from con- 

templation leaves no latent-deposit. 
Of these proceeding from birth and the other [four], that 
proceeding from concentration < leaves no latent -deposit,> 
[that is,] it has no subconscious-impressions from the hindrances 
and is fit for release. 

He says that also the karma of the yogin, like the mind- 
stuff, has differences of quality. 

7. The yogin's karma is neither-white-nor-black ; [the karma] of 

others is of three kinds. 
White karma is to be attained by voice and by central- 
organ and its sole result is pleasure ; it is found among those 
who are disposed to study and self-castigation. Black karma 
has its sole result in pain; it is found among the base. White- 
and-black-[karma] has a mixed result in pleasure and in pain 
and it is to be affected by outer means; it is found among 
the devotees of the soma sacrifice. In these [three] cases, 
because it is connected with the crushing of ants and similar 
[creatures] — in so far as rice or other grains are destroyed — 
and with aid to others, such as the giving of fees, there is 
this karma of three kinds in the case of <others> [that is] 
those who are not yogins. But the karma of yogins [that is] 
of ascetics, because they have cast off the karma which is to 
be effected by outer means, is not white-nor-black. Because 
the hindrances have dwindled it is not black; because the 
result of the right-living is committed to the Icvara without 
desiring any result it is not white karma. Consequently by 
means of the discriminative discernment into the purity of the 
mind-stuff the karma which is neither-white-nor-black has as 
its sole result release. 

He tells incidentally of the manifestation of subconscious- 
impressions of karma. 

8. As a result of this there follows the manifestation of those 
subconscious-impressions only which correspond to the fruition 

of their [karma]. 
As a result of this three-fold karma, just after the time of 
death, when there is a manifestation for giving the fruition 
which consists in birth, length of life, and kind of experience, 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprdbha. 93 

then there is a manifestation of the subconscious-impressions 
favorable to that [fruition] and not to opposed to it. If the 
mind-stuff reaches divinity there are subconscious-impressions 
of the human kind of enjoyment which become dormant, because 
in case they be manifested it is impossible that there should 
be the supernormal kind of enjoyment. 

The objector asks 'How is it that the subconscious-im- 
pressions, produced from the enjoyment of these things in 
heaven during his birth as a god, become manifest again in 
another birth as a god after thousands of births as men and 
as tigers have intervened? Why is it that just those sub- 
conscious-impressions which belong to the immediately preced- 
ing birth are not manifested, like the subconscious-impressions 
of the previous day?' In reply to this he says — 

9. There is uninterrupted- causal -relation [of subconscious-im- 
pressions] although remote in species or point of space or moment 
of time, by reason of the correspondence between memory and 
Although generally, in case of one who rises up after sleep- 
ing, the subconscious-impressions produced by the experience 
of the immediately preceding day are manifested because no- 
thing intervenes, still in this never-beginning round-of-rebirths 
there are the subconscious-impressions, which have been heaped 
up in enjoyments, as a result of whatever karma there be in 
whatever birth. Although ten thousand lives and space and 
hundreds of mundane cycles may have intervened, these [im- 
pressions] maniiested by that very karma or by that birth — 
when once a birth of that kind has been attained by a karma 
of the similar kind — are said to have an < uninterrupted-causal- 
relation.> In other words they become the cause of a kind 
of enjoyment through memory. The subconscious-impressions 
of the immediately preceding life, which was started by a 
different kind of karma, lie dormant because there is nothing 
that can manifest them. It is proper that [the subconscious- 
impressions], although there be interventions, should be mani- 
fested, because the karma and the birth exist which manifest 
them. Nor should you say 'Let the subconscious-impressions 
of the immediately preceding life be manifested by both [karma 
and birth], because there is nothing that intervenes; for so 

94 James Haughton Woods, 

there would be memory. Yet [this karma] is quite different 
[from that which precedes it].' The reply is <by reason of the 
correspondence between memory and subliminal impressions.> 
The meaning is this. A subliminal-impression is that which 
remains as a potentiality, whether as act or knowledge or 
otherwise, and which contains passion and the other [qualities]; 
and this [impression] is the cause of memory of action which 
has the same object as itself. 1 A subliminal-impression of 
action comes into mutation as an action; a subliminal-im- 
pression of knowledge as memory; another subliminal-im- 
pression otherwise. In this manner, by reason of the corre- 
spondence between memory and subliminal-impressions, inas- 
much as they are not distinct and have the same object, there 
is said to be a continuity between them, a relation of cause 
and effect, which cannot be between two disparates. For you 
cannot say that the fact that there is intervention can make 
the subliminal-impression produce a dissimilar effect. For if 
this were so, then immediately after the impression produced 
by the experience of a water-jar you could remember even 
that which is not experience. 

To the Charvaka who objects 'These are no subconscious- 
impressions from births gone by' he replies — 

10. These [subconscious-impressions], furthermore, have no be- 
ginning [that we can set in time] since desire is eternal. 
The meaning of the word <furthermore> is that these sub- 
conscious-impressions have not only an uninterrupted-causal- 
relation but also no beginning that we can set in time. Why 
is this? Because the craving 'may I always be,' which is the 
fear of death, is permanent, [that is to say,] one does not fail 
to find it in any living creature. The point of this is as 
follows. The fear of death inferred from the trembling, if 
from nothing else, forms the memory of the pain of the hatable 
object, because one never fails to find the two together. This 
[craving] forms the subconscious-impression; and this [im- 
pression forms] the experience of the pain which proceeds from 
death; this [experience] in that it cannot be made possible 
in this birth forms another birth. Thus it is established that 

1 That is to say, its object is not stolen away, as discussed in i. 11. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 95 

desire has no beginning. The objector asks 'If body is not 
the soul, who then is it that fears birth and death? [It can- 
not be] the soul because it is without beginning or end and 
as such is not 1 susceptible to fear.' We reply that [the fear 
belongs] to the mind- stuff. It is the attainment (labha) by 
this same mind-stuff, — which is entangled 2 in beginningless 
desires, and which is all-pervading in that it is a product of 
the personality-substance, — of a fluctuation disposed to ex- 
pansion or contraction according to [the sizes of] the different 
bodies; [this fluctuation] we call birth and the cessation of 
[this] fluctuation we call death. "While this is happening there 
is pain. Thus all this round-of-rebirths belongs [to this mind- 

The objector asks 'If the subconscious-impressions are from 
time- without-beginning, how is it that they can be cut off?' 
In reply to this he says — 

11. Since [these subconscious-impressions] are associated with 

cause and motive and mental substrate and stimulus, if these 

cease to be, then those [subconscious-impressions] cease to be. 

These are not, like the Self, without a beginning. But are 
effects only 3 in a stream without a beginning. Consequently 
by cutting off their causes, it is possible to cut them off. To 
explain. The never-ending wheel of the round-of-rebirths 
ceaselessly rolls on. Undifferentiated-consciousness (avidya) 
characterized by subliminal-impressions of delusion, each one 
succeeding another, is the cause of the feeling-of-personality 
expressed by 'I am.' And this feeling-of-personality is the 
cause of this error 'I am a man' or 'This dissatisfaction is 
mine.' This error is the cause of passion and hatred. Both 
of these, again, are the causes of right-living and of wrong- 
living by leading a man to punish another or by some such 
act. Both these [kinds of living are causes] of enjoyment. 

i Reading with the India Office MS. 559 d and the MS. in the Deecan 
College Library (No. 619 of 1887—91) antasyabhayatvad iti. 

2 The a is to be read a according to the two MSS*. just cited. This 
adjective gives the motive for the creation. The next one ahamkarikat- 
vena vibhunas meets the objection that the mind-stuff of an elephant 
must be many times greater in size than that of an ant. 

3 Reading eva. 

96 James Haughton Woode, 

And this [enjoyment is the cause] of subconscious-impressions- 
And these again are the cause of delusion and the rest. In 
this case [then], the karmas from the hindrances are the causes 
of the subconscious-impressions; the body and the term of 
life and the kind of enjoyment are the result; the mind-stuff 
is the mental-substrate; sounds or other [perceptible] things 
are the physical-basis. Since [the impressions] are associated 
with these, if these are cut off by unwavering discriminate 
discernment produced by the yoga which is an aid to the yoga 
of action, then, because the causes have ceased to be, [these 
subconscious impressions] cease to be. 

The objector asks 'If the subliminal -impressions are real, 
how can they cease to be?' In reply he says — 

12. Past and future really exist [therefore subliminal-impressions 

do not cease to be]. For the different time-forms belong to the 


There is no creation of what is not existent, nor destruction 
of what is existent. For according to the "Word (Bhag. Glta 
ii. 16] of the Supreme Icvara "No being is found which comes 
from what does not exist; no not-being is found which comes 
from what exists." And in accordance with the saying that 
the past and the future, like the present, are knowable by 
perception which says [Bhag. Glta vii. 26] " Know, O Arjuna, 
that I am all past and present and future things," nothing 
which does not exist can be knowable by perception. Therefore 
the totality of past and future external-aspects does exist in 
potential form in the substance. This (yat) yogins immediately 
experience by constraint upon the three mutations. And 
potters, for instance, after sketching in their minds make [the 
water-pot], when there is a substance, a whole-in-relation-to- 
all-its-parts, which is said to be permanent and unitary. The 
objector says 'Then the knowledge of the reality is useless, 
because one is bound by subconscious-impressions and so forth.' 
The reply is, No. For in the present time-form, because the 
future and the, other time-forms belong to the external-aspects, 
the mind-stuff, diversified with subconscious-impressions of pain 
and what not and being dominant and disposed to numberless 
mutations, when changed into a state of being that is the 
object of experience, is said to be in bondage. When there 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 97 

is knowledge of reality, the mind-stuff loses its dominance and 
enters into the past time-form, and although existent as primary- 
matter, yet because the purpose of the Self which was to be 
accomplished — and this is the seed for its rising again — has 
been accomplished, it does not return again. 

It has been said that the past and the future as such do 
exist. If this is so, what are they as such? In reply to this 
he says — 

13. These [time-forms] are phenomenalized [individuals] or 
subtile [generic forms] and their essence is the aspects (gun a). 

The <phenomenalized> belong to the present time-form; the 
<subtile> to the past and future time-forms. These time-forms 
begin with the Great Thinking-substance and end with such 
particularized things as water-jars; their essence is the aspects 
(guna) and they consist of sattva and rajas and tamas. All 
beings in so far as they are parts of the whole which is the 
aspects, whose essence is pleasure and pain and infatuation, 
because they are evolved from these, are as such precisely 
that. Just as water-jars, for example, are parts of the whole 
which is the clay and as such are that, because there is an 
identity in the form of identity in difference. In it the aspects 
(guna) are permanently in mutation. The Self is absolutely 
unchanged; all other beings are in mutation from moment to 
moment, fading out with the moments. This is said in the 
Comment, [by Varsaganya] "Constituents from their utmost 
height come not within the range of sight. But all within 
the range of sight a phantom seems and empty quite." In 
other words, it fades away like a mirage. 

The objector says 'If the three aspects are in mutation, 
then the mutations one by one would have no unity. For it 
is plain that there is no one mutation of clay and of thread 
and of milk.' In reply to this he says — 

14. The existence of a thing is due to its singleness of 


Even of many things there is evidently a single mutation. 

For example elephants or horses or the like thrown into a 

brackish place have a salt mutation; wick, oil, and fire have 

a mutation as lamp. Yet such things as clay, because they 

7 JA.OS 31. 

98 James Haughton Woods, 

are not in the relation of subordinate to principal, have no 
singleness of mutation. The aspects (guna), however, because 
they have a unity of mutation, in the relation [to them] of 
subordinate to principal, which is a real thing (vastu) whether 
it be the Great [thinking-substance] or some thing else may 
rightly be said to have a reality, which is a unity. Of these 
[aspects], in case the sattva is principal, there is from the 
three aspects a single mutation, the Great [thinking-substance]; 
from this, which is single, when the rajas prevails, there comes 
the personality-substance; [from it], when tamas prevails, the 
five fine substances, one by one, arise as unities. From the 
personality-substance which consists of sattva there come the 
sense-organs; from that which consists of rajas there come 
the organs of action; from [the personality-substance] of both 
kinds there comes the central -organ. Thus when the fine 
substance sound is principal, there is the air, a single mutation 
of the five fine substances. Similarly when the fine substances 
touch or color or taste or smell are successively principal, 
wind or fire or water or earth are one by one produced. On 
the other hand, there are many mutations from a single one, 
because of the diversity in the potential forms of the sub- 
conscious-impressions of many mutations. Enough of such 

The objector says 'There is nothing over and above the 
mind-stuff which is in essence momentary mental-processes. 
Whatever is to be validly known, that is not distinct from 
mental-processes; just as a mental -process is [not distinct 
from a mental-process]. These things which are to be validly 
known are water-jars and such things. Hence with reference 
to whom is the discussion of the unity or plurality? For the 
mind-stuff itself is without beginning; when diversified by sub- 
conscious-impressions which are the same as the immediate 
(samanantara) cause it presents itself as substances and quali- 
ties.' To the Buddhist who talks thus he replies — 

15. Because while the physical-object is the same there is a 

difference of mind-stuffs, the [two are upon] distinct 

levels of existence. 

Of the two, [that is,] the mind-stuff and the physical-object 
the level is distinct, [that is,] the procedure is different. In. 

Toga-sidras with Maniprdbha. 99 

other words there is a difference between the mental-process 
and the physical-object. Why is this? Because while the 
physical-object is the same there is a difference of mind-stuffs. 
That mental-process with regard to the same woman is in the 
case of the husband a mental-process of pleasure; in the rival 
wives, a mental-process of pain; in the case of the lover, if 
he does not get her, infatuation, [that is,] despondency; in the 
case of him who has cast off love, a mental-process of in- 
difference. Because the assertion 'What you have seen, that 
I have seen too' is uncontradicted by any one, one may say 
that there is one physical-object and several mental-processes. 
Thus there is a difference between them. Anything that is 
one is different from something that is many. Just as the 
mental-process blue is different from the mental-processes of 
yellows. And one physical-object is accordingly different from 
the several mental -processes, which have it as their field of 
operation. Nor is it proper to say that the object-of-a- valid- 
idea is identical with the valid-idea. Because if the unity were 
accepted, it would be opposed [to the usual ideas] of objects 
and of one who knows the object. And besides, if no intended- 
object existed, then [the different] mental -processes cannot 
possibly assume the forms of blue and yellow and so on. Nor 
can you say that a subconscious-impression of the nature of 
the object-of-the-valid-idea is the cause of the blueness or 
yellowness. Because that which is no more [a physical-object] 
cannot be the cause [of anything]. Nor can you [Patanjali] 
ask us [the Buddhists] 'How do you explain how there is a 
variety of mind-stuffs from one single intended -object.' For 
an intended-object is constituted of the three aspects (guna)-^ 
and the sattva and rajas and tamas pertaining to the intended- 
object come up in spite of pressure (samudrekat) on account 
of right-living or wrong-living or undifferentiated-consciousness 
As a result of this [the sattva and so on] cause pleasure and 
pain and infatuation. And [fourthly] on account of the in- 
difference the intended-object is the cause of the knowledge 
of the reality, because in this case the aspects are in equi- 
librium. Thus all is reasonable. Therefore we say that 
physical-objects do exist over and above mental-processes. 

As regards that which somebody says ' We admit that there 
may be many intended -objects apart from mental-processes. 

100 James Haughton Woods, 

But that [object] being inert is to be known by a mental- 
process [and is therefore] vivid [by intelligence, that is,] it has 
no existence when not known' — he should be asked to tell us 
when [the object] is produced. If you [the Buddhist] say it 
is produced from mind-stuff, which is nothing but mental- 
processes, as knower, [two questions are to be asked]. Is the 
physical-object, the water-jar, the effect of the mind-stuff of 
the single Chaitra? Or is it the effect of many mind-stuffs 
belonging to Chaitra and to Maitra and to others? It is not 
the first. Accordingly he says — 

16. And a thing is not dependent upon a single mind-stvff; 
[for then] it would he unproved, and then what would it be? 

If the water-jar, which is a physical-object, were to be the 
effect of a single mind-stuff, then while that mind-stuff is ab- 
sorbed in such things as cloth, would it be < unproved, > [that 
is,] would it be destroyed? [We say it would be destroyed.] 
Nor could you say that you accept this exclusion (istapattih). 
Because when that very same water-jar is seen again, there 
is a recognition that it is the same which is not falsified by 
anything; and because even when one mind-stuff is absorbed 
by one thing, then [this jar] is seen by another mind-stuff. 
Accordingly a thing is not dependent on one mind-stuff. Nor 
yet is it dependent on several mind-stuffs. Because 1. that 
which is presented-for-a-moment-without-substance (pratibhasika) 
is invariably (niyamat) dependent on one mind-stuff, like a 
dream; and because 2. the unacceptable conclusion would follow 
that new and different water-jars would be produced when a 
jar which was being seen by one is afterwards seen in relation 
to several minds. [He gives the reason for this.] Because 
there is a difference in the totality of causes [in the two cases]. 
Furthermore at the time when the belly is seen the back does 
not exist. Thus it would follow that even the belly would not 
exist. Therefore the thing is not presented-for-a-moment- 
without-substance, but is over and above the mind-stuff and 
independent of it. This is established. 

The objector says 'According to the system the supernormal- 
powers of the mind-stuff would know everything at all times, 
because it is in relation to everything.' In reply to this he 

says — 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprdbha. 101 

17. A thing is perceived or not perceived by virtue of its 
affecting [or not affecting] the mind-stuff. 

Although the organs and the mind-stuff, because they are 
products of the personality-substance, are all-pervading, still 
their relation when asleep in the personality-substance is not 
a cause of making objects flash [on the mind]. But [they are the 
cause of making objects flash] when they are phenomenalized 
by karma and when they have a body underlying them. And 
thus led by the organs the mind-stuff is affected by that object 
with regard to which the mind-stuff receives the flashing [on 
itself] which consists in the reflection of intelligence (cit) lying 
upon [the mind-stuff] itself. The Self lights up (cetayati) this 
object by means of the fluctuation which has the same form 
as that [object], by means of a reflection of the Self in the 
thinking-substance; and not any other [object]. Thus a thing 
is perceived or not perceived. Consequently the mind-stuff, 
in accordance as it is affected by this object [or not], some- 
times perceives it and sometimes not. Thus the point is that 
it is in mutation because the object is [now] perceived and 
now [not] perceived. 

'If so, the self would be in mutation.' In reply to this he 
says — 

18. Unintermittently the Master of that [mind-stuff] perceives 
the fluctuations of mind-stuff and thus the Self undergoes no 

Now the Self has the mind-stuff with all its fluctuations, 
distracted and infatuated and what not, as its object. If this 
[object, the mind-stuff,] were not to be known by the Self at 
the time when [the mind-stuff] itself exists (like the sounds 
and other [perceptible] things) which are objects of mind-stuff 
and [perceived] by the mind- stuff, then the Self would be in 
mutation like the mind-stuff. [Why so?] Because it would 
follow that this [Self] would be the perceiver only with reference 
to the mutations of the fluctuations when having this or that 
form. What then is the use of the two kinds of things in 
mutation? For the Self would not be other than the mind- 
stuff. But the mind-stuff's fluctuations, perceived at their own 
time of existence, as objects for experience, and as having the 
form of sounds and other [perceptible] things, make known the 

102 James Haughton Woods, 

the immutability of the master, [that is,] the experiencer of 
that object-for-experience. For only because the witness 
undergoes no mutation are they by that very fact uninter- 
mittently perceived and not otherwise. 

The objector says 'Suppose that the mind-stuff is momentary 
and has lumination in itself and lightens itself and its own 
object. What is the use of the witness?' In reply to this 
he says — 

19. It does not have light in itself since it is an object-for-sight. 
If one says 'I am happy; I am angry; my mind is at peace' 

just as one says 'The water-jar is beautiful,' one cannot say 
that the mind-stuff has light in itself, [that is,] has lumination 
in itself; because it is an object-for-sight. The point is this. 
What is this having lumination in itself? Surely not having 
the object and the act of lumination undistinguished from each 
other. Because it is impossible that there should be unity of 
an act and of the object of an act. For the going is not 
gone to, but a village. Nor can you say that the mind-stuff 
is not the object of the lumination which is different from 
itself, as the Self is. Because if I say 'My mind is angry, 
the mind-stuff is an object of experience. Hence because it 
is an object-for-sight it must have a Seer over and above it- 
self. And the mind-stuff cannot be momentary because there 
is the recognition that 'I am the same.' 

Moreover — 

20. And . there cannot be a cognition of both [thinking-substance 

and thing] at the same time. 
The momentary theory maintains that in the same moment 
a cognition of both kinds, of the mind-stuff and of the in- 
telligence (caitanya), is impossible. To explaiD. When I say 
'I saw the banyan tree,' there is a remembering of the mind- 
stuff and of the intended-object producible from the experience 
of these two. In this moment of the mind-stuff how is there 
an experience of these two? Nor may you say that the mind- 
stuff is itself the experience of both the kinds. 1. If the ob- 
ject were produced by the mind-stuff, then at the moment 
when the object [is produced and dies] the mind-stuff does 
not exist 2. And if it were not produced by this [mind-stuff], 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 103 

it would be impossible that tbe intended-object should be per- 
ceived by this [mind-stuff], because there would be no pro- 
duction of it or of the identity of [object and mind-stuff], 
although the object might exist at the same time with it. 
3. If you were to say that mind- stuff can be known out of 
relations, then you would have to admit that mind-stuff knows 
everything. For this is said by the Buddhists " The production 
of that which does not [correspond to] it and the identity of 
[object and mind-stuff] which does not hold is not known by 
this mind-stuff." It has been declared that the mind-stuff has 
neither an experience of itself, since it is an object-for-sight; 
nor has it the two kinds of experiences belonging to itself 
and to its object, since what is quite momentary has no 
functional-activity over and above that of production. For it 
has been said "Whatever is the being of a thing that is itself 
the action and the means-related-to-action." And there is no 
reason in saying that there is a distinction in effect resulting 
from a single thing when there is no distinction in functional- 
activity. Nor yet is it possible in sleep to make simultaneously 
the perception and the object to be perceived. Consequently 
in the witness alone there is the experience of the mind-stuff 
and of the intelligence. Thus the point is settled. 

The objector says 'Granted that the mind-stuff is not an 
object-for-sight to itself; let it be seen by another mind-stuff. 
What use is there of a witness?' In reply to this he says — 

21. If [one mind-stuff] were the object-of-sight for another, there 
would be an infinite regress from one thinking-substance to an- 
other thinking-substance as well as confusion of memory. 

If a mind-stuff formed blue were the object-of-sight for an- 
other mind-stuff, then that mind-stuff formed as thinking-sub- 
stance [would be the object] for another thinking-substance, 
and that too for another. Because an infinite regress would 
be formed. Nor could you say that objects -of- knowledge 
might consist of two or three, three or four, or five or six 
mind-stuffs and so be a complex of states. 1. Because if you 
are not sure that there is a mind-stuff which knows, you can- 
not be sure there is a mind-stuff which is the object known. 
2. Because if there is doubt whether one sees the water-jar 
in the house or not; and if you are negatively sure that one 

104 James Haughton Woods, 

does not see it, then it follows that, in so far as you are not 
sure of seeing the object, the failure of the mind-stuff as per- 
ception is not the reason why you are not sure of the 
object. If there is an experience by numberless mind-stuffs 
one after another there would be also confusion of memory 
of the numberless mind-stuffs. Because as the result of this 
numberlessness of memories it would be impossible to know 
anything, and because there is no one to know, the distinction 
'This is the memory of the blue' and 'This is the memory of 
the yellow' would not exist. So it is established that mind- 
stuffs are upon an equality and so it is not possible that one 
should be knower [and also known], like lamps [which cannot 
be both perceivers and perceived]. Consequently the mind- 
stuff must be cognized by the witness. 

The objector asks 'Because the witness who is absolutely 
unchanged has no relation with the mind-stuff which would be 
consequent upon an action, how can the mind-stuff be conscious 
as this or as that?' In reply to this he says — 

22. The intelligence (citi), which unites not with objects is 

conscious of its own thinking-substance when [the mind-stuff] 

takes the form of that [thinking-substance] [by reflecting it]. 

There is an interconnection, [that is,] a union with the water- 
jars and other objects by the action of the thinking-substance, 
because it is in mutation. But the union of the intelligence 
(citi) with the thinking- sub stance is not so, because it is not 
in mutation. On the other hand, when the intelligence is 
reflected in the thinking-substance, just as the sun is reflected 
in water, and when the thinking-substance is changed into the 
form of the intelligence, [the intelligence] is conscious of the 
thinking-substance, in so far as it is its object-of-experience. 
As being in the relation of object-for-knowledge, by contain- 
ing, the image of the intelligence, the mind-stuff is affected by 
the intelligence and is cognized by the intelligence. As a 
result of the nearness of the intelligence which unites not with 
objects, this intelligence has a form, [that is,] an image. "When 
there is a change into the nature of this [image of the in- 
telligence], then [the intelligence] has a consciousness of the 
thinking-substance which is to be experienced by itself. Such 
is the connection [of the intelligence with the mind-stuffj. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 105 

The objector raises the question 'If the self is something 
over and above the mind-stuff, how then is it that some per- 
sons make the mistake of thinking that the mind-stuff is the 
self?' In reply he says that the source of these persons' 
mistake is the mind-stuff's capacity to know all objects. 

23. Mind-stuff affected by the Seer and by the object-for- sight 
[leads to the perception] of all objects. 
The Seer, [that is,] the Self is intelligent; the object-for- 
sight, [that is,] the sounds and other [perceptible] things, is 
unintelligent. That which [leads to the perception] of all ob- 
jects is that of which the intended-object, [that is,] the province, 
is all objects, both the intelligent and the unintelligent. By 
the nearness of the one to the other [all this] is changed over, 
as it were, into the form of the intelligence and becomes 
affected by the Seer, [that is,] by the intelligence and the 
province of the Seer; [and] by means of the organs and so 
forth [all this] becomes affected by the object-for-sight and 
takes its form. And thus, although the mind-stuff is the ob- 
ject-for-sight and has the form of the sounds and [other] per- 
ceptible things which are to be experienced and is in essence 
a kind of experience characterized by mutations of pleasure 
and pain and so on, yet the mistake of the Buddhists, who 
think that [the mind-stuff] is not different from the reflection 
of the intelligence is reasonable. Because the mind-stuff, — 
which in reality is almost like a crystal gem, that is pure and 
that has the tendency to assume the forms of such objects as 
the hibiscus flower, — assumes the form of the object-for-sight, 
there is no object over and above mind-stuff. Such is the 
mistake of the Idealist theory. The distinction in this case 
is of this kind. Because the mind-stuff is the object-of-ex- 
perience, it must be admitted that it is other than the ex- 
periencer; he is declared to be the permanently aroused power 
of intelligence (cit-gakti). Two-fold is the power of intelligence, 
the permanently aroused and the manifestable. Of these two, 
the permanently aroused and absolutely unchanged power of 
intelligence has the power of intelligence as experience, as it 
is itself, manifestable by the mind-stuff's sattva and as being 
the reflection of intelligence after having become changed into 
likeness with pleasures and so on. And this experience is 
two-fold. The one, as ending in intelligence, [that is, leading 

106 James Haughton Woods 

to release]; and the other, characterized as mutation. Of these 
two, the first is the manifestable power of intelligence, the 
second is the experience of the Self, the mutation into pleasure 
or something when the thinking-substance has acquired in- 
telligence. Thus having discriminated between the thinking- 
substance and the Self, he is sure that the mind-stuff, which 
has dispelled the whole net of taints, and is concentrated like 
the flame of a motionless lamp, and is undisturbedly-calm in 
its flow, is the reality of the Self. This is the import [of the 
whole thing]. 

And as a result of this the enjoyer is other than the mind- 
stuff. Accordingly he says — 

24. This mind-stuff [although] diversified 1 by countless sub- 
conscious-impressions, exists for the sake of another, since its 
nature is to produce things by combining causes. 

Although, in so far as its substance is in pleasure and the 
like, [the mind-stuff] is like the experiencer and diversified by 
numberless subconscious-impressions by the fruition of the 
karma from the hindrances, still in the sense that it perfects 
the two purposes, experience and release, for another, [that is,] 
for one whose real nature is being intelligence to which nothing 
is ascribed, it is said to exist for the sake of another. In 
other words, it is only an object-of-experience, not an ex- 
periencer. "Why is this? Because it causes such effects as 
experience, by bringing together, [that is,] assembling such a 
combination as the body and the organs. That is for the 
sake of another which has its effect caused by assembling [its 
parts], a water-jar for instance. For a house, by combining 
parts and what not, does not make a dwelling for itself, but 
for the sake of another, Vishvamitra. Similarly it is reason- 
able to say that the aspects (guna) also make the thinking- 
substance and the rest for the sake of another. Consequently 
because they are subordinate to the Self they are called 
aspects. And so if we may say that the sattva and the others 
are for the sake of another, since they act by combining causes, 
as in the case of a house, then because this middle-term (hetu) 
becomes an attribute of the major-term it is proved that there 

1 The reading is evidently citram. 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 107 

is one who is not combined from the aspects, who is undefined 
[by aspects], who is motionless, who has his purpose in him- 
self, and aims at intelligence and nothing else. Whoever is 
the experiencer of anything is not combined from that thing, 
for instance the master of the house. As a result of this 
concomitance, if the experiencer of the aspects were also for 
the sake of another, then because of the infinite regressus, 
there would be nothing higher than the Self in accordance 
with the Sacred Word [Kath. Up. iii. 11]. Therefore it is 
proved that he whose two purposes of experience and of 
liberation are to be accomplished by the thinking-substance 
made of aspects, he who is to be favored by pleasure and 
repelled by pain, is the experiencer. 

By the group of sutras up to this point he has determined 
the perfection of birth and so on, and [determined] the mind- 
stuff which is fit for release from among [all] the mind-stuffs 
And after having first dilated (prapanca) upon karma and sub- 
conscious-impressions, by proving the existence of objects apart 
from mental-processes, he has determined in detail another 
world and the experiencer who is to [go] to the other world. 
Now in order to discuss Isolation he shows who it is that is 
competent for this [Isolation]. 

25. For him who sees the distinction, pondering upon his own 

states-of -being. 

Some excellent (dhdureya) person meditates upon, [that is,] 
has the curiosity to know, the truth as regards the self, on 
the strength of his former good deeds, and asks 'Where am 
I; to whom do I belong; or whence do I come?' The curiosity 
to know the reality on the part of this competent person, 
who is the one who sees the distinction, by means of the dis- 
crimination already referred to, (which would be the thought 
'I am a Self; other than a thinking-substance; intelligence 
and nothing more') — ceases. Because a desire is removed 
when the object of desire is obtained. But that heterodox 
person, whose meditation upon the self as being identical with 
the non-self is firm, and who thinks in this manner 'There is 
no experiencer other than the body and the thinking-sub- 
stance, — he is not competent. The point is that he who desires 
to know the reality is a competent person. 

108 James Haughton Woods, 

The objector asks 'After there is a seeing of the distinction 
on the part of him who desires to know the reality, of what 
sort is the mind-stuif?' 

26. Then the mind-stuff is borne down to discrimination, on- 

ward towards Isolation. 
That mind-stuff which formerly at the time of the error of 
the self with regard to the thinking-substance and so on was 
borne down to objects, on towards the round-of-rebirths, is 
now that mind-stuff, belonging to the yogin whose error has 
ceased, which is borne down to discrimination. The dis- 
crimination is the difference between the Seer and the object- 
for-sight. It is borne onward towards, [that is,] it has a spot 
on which it rests; in other words the goal of discrimination. 
Accordingly that which [moves] < onward towards Isolation > 
is that of which the limit towards which [it moves] is Isolation. 
The final result of Isolation is that the mind-stuff becomes 
absorbed in the contemplation called the Rain-Cloud of [know- 
able] Things. 

The objector asks 'In such a mind-stuff whence come the 
emergent presented-ideas such as 'I' or 'mine?' In reply to 
this he says — 

27. In the intervals of this mind-stuff there are other presented- 

ideas [coming] from subliminal-impressions. 
In the case of him who is intent upon the Elevation (pra- 
samkhydna), which consists in discriminative discernment, day 
by day other presented-ideas, emergent in form, arise from 
the subliminal-impressions of emergence, which are manifested 
in the intervals of the Elevation. 

The question is raised 'Even if there is Elevation, subliminal- 
impressions of emergence arise for work. What means is there 
for rejecting these?' In reply to this he says — 

28. The rejection of these is described as being like the rejection 

of hindrances. 

Undifferentiated-consciousness and passion and the rest of 

the hindrances, attenuated by the yoga of action, spreading 

out by taking opportunity after opportunity, when burned by 

the fire of Elevation (prasamkhyana), do not again generate 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. 109 

a subliminal-impression in the mind-stuff. Thus subliminal- 
impressions of emergence produce other presented-ideas at the 
time when discrimination is not ripe; and when in the state 
of seeds burned by the burning which comes from the ripened 
Elevation they have not the property of generation. Thus it 
is to be understood that the rejection is described as being 
like that of the hindrances. 

Thus having described the restriction of the emergence by 
Elevation, he tells of the means for restricting even the Ele- 
vation, which consists in emergence as compared with seed- 
less yoga. 

29. For one who takes no interest even in respect of Elevation 
there follows in every case, as a result of discriminative dis- 
cernment, the Bain-Cloud of [knowable] Things. 

The discernment into the difference between the sattva and 
the Self, which arises in one who beholds the twenty-five en- 
tities, has as its subordinate results the authority over every- 
thing and similar [results]. This is the Elevation (prasam- 
khyana). <For one who takes no interest even> in this— the 
word interest (ku-sidasya), [that is,] passion being used in the 
sense that it sits (sidati) upon objects which are bad (kut- 
sitesu) — for one who has none of this, the discriminative dis- 
cernment only which consists of a series becomes, as being 
undivided in itself, the concentration called the Rain-Cloud of 
[knowable] Things. And this is said to be a Rain-Cloud of 
[knowable] Things in the sense that it rains, [that is,] showers 
right-living, that is, of course, neither-white-nor-black, as the 
result of Isolation. When there is the Rain-Cloud of [know- 
able] Things as the result of passionlessness with regard to 
Elevation, the restriction of Elevation comes to pass as the 
result of the rise of the higher passionlessness. 

He makes this order clear — 

30. Then follows the cessation of the hindrances and the karmas. 
<Then> [that is,] from the Rain-Cloud of [knowable] Things 

there follows the repression of the five hindrances together 
with the subconscious-impressions which have their root in 
these, and also of the karmas. 

110 James Houghton Woods, 

31. Then, because of the endlessness of perception from which 

all obscuring defilements and obscurations have passed away, 

what is yet to be known amounts to little. 

Obscurations are so called because they obscure the mind- 
stuff. Defilements consist of karma from hindrances and are 
made of rajas and tamas. All these, both the obscurations 
and the defilements, [are "what he means] by saying <all defile- 
ments and obscurations. > Because of the endlessness of per- 
ception resulting from these, by reason of the contemplation 
[called] Eain-Cloud of [knowable] Things, which is the shining 
of pure thinking-substance, the <what is yet to be known, > 
[that is,] everything whether intelligent or unintelligent is very 
little. Just as in autumn when every defilement, whether it 
be cloud or any other thing, has passed away from the sky, 
and when on all sides there is a circle of the light of the 
fierce sun brilliantly shining, then such things as water-jars 
capable of receiving light amount to little. Likewise for the 
ever-undefiled sattva of the thinking-substance what, pray, is 
there that is not its field of operation! This same highest 
limit of the Rain-Cloud of [knowable] Things has been made 
known. Hence it is called [knowable] things (dharmdh); but 
not according to the etymological sense of those things that 
are supported (dhrlyante). All knowable things it rains, [that 
is,] enlightens. So he calls it a Rain-Cloud of [knowable] 
Things. For this same perfection of the Rain-Cloud of [know- 
able] Things is the undisturbed calm of perception, which makes 
the Self visible as being flawless [as plainly as] a myrobalan 
put on the palm of one's hand, — and which casts light as one 
would cast light upon fish in undefiled water, upon the defects 
such as impurity and destruction which are found in objects 
of sight that are evolved-forms of the material and impure 
primary-substance,— and which brings about the treasure called 
the seedless yoga for the [poor] ascetic mind -stuff. This is 
called the higher passionlessness. 

The objector says 'This higher passionlessness wearing com- 
pletely the hindrances away may be able to destroy utterly 
the deposits, auspicious or inauspicious, of karma, yet— because 
the aspects are of themselves disposed to mutation — the sequence 
of mutations, the body, the organs and so on {adi), with regard 

Yoga-sutras with Maniprabha. Ill 

to such a Self also, might continue to act.' In reply to this 
he says — 

32. When as a result of this the aspects (guna) fulfill their 
purpose, they attain to the limit of their sequence of mutations. 

<When as a result of this> [that is,] after the endless know- 
ledge which is in essence the higher passionlessness, [that is] 
the fruit of the Rain-Cloud of [knowable] Things, and before 
the aspects have effected the purposes of the Self which con- 
sist in experience and in discriminative discernment. That 
sequence of mutations, beginning with the Great [thinking- 
substance] and ending with water-jars, by conforming to the 
regular order, is resolved at the time of the dissolution as a 
water-jar into earth, and in the inverse order the earth was 
resolved into water, the water into fire, and so onwards. This 
was the sequence which was completed by the aspects with 
reference to that Self. For because the Self has purposes, 
the purpose of the Self which has a future time-form is an 
impulsion to the aspects. When this [purpose] is fulfilled the 
aspects are not able to remain even for a moment. This is 
the point. 

He tells the meaning of the word sequence. 

33. A sequence is the correlate to a moment and is recognized 

as such at the final limit of the mutation. 

Moments are portions of time (kala). [Their] sequence is 
knowable by the thinking-substance which is concentrated upon 
them. In these words <a sequence is the correlate to a 
moment > the nature of the < sequence > is pointed out. It is 
said to be the correlate of the moment because two moments 
are indicated as its correlates. Thus the sequence of mutations 
from moment to moment is to be considered. He tells what 
the proof of this is. <And is recognized as such at the final 
limit of the mutation. > Thus in the case of clay the perceived 
mutations, round-lump, water-jar, potsherds, dust, have a prior 
limit and a final limit. In this manner by mentioning the 
prior and the final termination the sequence is determined 
and becomes an object of knowledge. When we recognize 
that the water-jar comes after the round lump the sequence is 

112 James Haughton Woods, 

perceived there. By seeing the oldness in a well-kept garment, 
for instance, one perceives, moment by moment, beginning with 
the mutation of newness as the previous limit, the difference 
in the oldness [by the successive stages] of most subtile, rather 
subtile, subtile, rather coarse, and most coarse as they come 
to pass; and the sequence may be inferred as [soon as one 
sees] that the most subtile oldness comes after the newness 
and that the rather subtile oldness comes after that. The 
objector asks 'Is this sequence in impermanent things only, 
or is it also in permanent things also?' If this question is 
asked, we say that it is in permanent things also. There are 
two kinds of permanents. The Selves are absolutely unchanged 
permanents; the aspects are permanents in mutation. The 
substance in which the essential-attribute (svarupa) is not lost 
while in mutation as external-aspect and as time-characteristic 
and as intensity is a permanent in mutation. With regard 
to these, in case of impermanent substances such as thinking- 
substances, although there is a previous limit of the sequence 
of such a mutation as passion, yet there is a final limit, the 
immediate experience of the Self. Thus in these the sequence 
has a termination. In the case of the aspects, which are 
permanent in mutation, the sequence of the mutation has no 
termination. Because although it ceases in respect of released 
Selves, it is not cut off in respect of bound Selves. The ob- 
jector asks whether all Selves are released or not? If the 
first [alternative be true], the mutation in the primary-cause 
has a termination; if the second [alternative be true], there 
is no belief in your knowledge of the reality. On this point 
the Master of the Samkhya says [Bhasya on iv. 33] that there 
is a three-fold question 1. capable of an absolute answer, 
2. capable of a partial answer, 2. incapable of answer. 1. Of 
these [three] the first is as follows. The question is '"Will this 
whole species die?' This may be answered absolutely, It will 
die. 2. But how do you answer the second question? This 
is capable of a partial answer. He who has discernment of 
the reality is released, and no other. And thus because living 
beings are endless and because it is revealed in the Puranas 
and elsewhere that creations and dissolutions are endless, there 
is no release for all. 3. But the third question is whether 
the sequence of mutations of the primary cause is completed 
or not. This question is incapable of answer, because it is 

Yoga-siitras with Maniprabhd. 113 

impossible to make a definite assertion. Or else this question 
is explainable by saying that the sequence of the round of 
rebirths has an end for fortunate beings, but not for the un- 

Accordingly there is always a sequence, the aspects which 
are permanent and in mutation, because there is a difference 
in the mutation which occurs in sequence. In the Selves 
which are absolutely unchanged the sequence is not physically- 
real, but is predicated by attributing [to the Selves] the 
difference of mutation found in the thinking-substance and the 
rest. Thus all is cleared up. 

He now shows what Isolation is, the result of the yoga 
which was to be taught by the authoritative book. 

34. Isolation is the return of tJie aspects (gun a), no longer 
provided with a purpose by the Self, to their original condition; 
or it is the Energy of Intellect (citi-gakti) grounded in itself. 

Now that the aspects of the thinking-substance and of the 
rest of the [entities] have accomplished experience and liberation 
[for the Self], which was the task which they had to accom- 
plish, they are generated inversely in the contrary direction 
and are resolved in the central-organ as subliminal-impressions 
of the higher passionlessness of the emergent concentration. 
And the central-organ is resolved into the feeling-of-personality; 
and this into the Great [thinking-substance]; and the Great 
Entity into the aspects. Such is a mundane dissolution. This 
Isolation of the primary-cause is transferred to a particular 
Self. Or else, the Energy of Intellect, which is the very In- 
tellect itself, [that is,] an individual Self, abides in itself and 
in nothing else in a preeminent degree. So it is <grounded> 
in itself. That is, it is again out of relation finally with the 
purposelessness of the thinking-substance and the rest [of the 
entities]. This same is the Isolation of the light of the per- 
manent Self permanently purified in its union with itself. Thus 
[all] is satisfactory. The word iti in the sutra is intended to 
show the completion of the book. 

114 J. H. Woods, Yoga-sutras with Maniprahha. 

1. Ceaselessly I bow to Raghava, who is the source of all 
perfections, who is the Lord, who gives Isolation. All actions 
if dedicated to Him (yatra) produce yoga without [need of 
the] aids to yoga. His (yad) speech which is a fire for the 
performance of the Mystic Syllable, 1 after having burned at 
once the forest of hindrances, produced the unflickering lamp 
of knowledge which cleanses the darkness. 

2. The Great Lord, the husband of Uma, whose dwelling 
is in Kac.1, the slightest favor from whom produces all kinds of 
prosperity, such as release, I worship. 

3. May my speech be a garland of pearls, placed forever 
at the feet of Rama, and woven around the thread (sutra) of 
the Lord of Serpents [Patanjali], and adorned by the [costly] 
jewel (mani) [in the middle of the string] which is the speech 
of Vyasa. 

4. What a difference (kva . . . kva) between me given to mis- 
takes and the master's affection [for me]! The mind of the 
great is indeed naturally full of compassion for the helpless. 

1 This word pranava might refer to the Veda or even to something